Nextcloud, a fork of ownCloud, is a file sharing server that permits you to store your personal content, like documents and pictures, in a centralized location, much like Dropbox. The difference with Nextcloud is that all of its features are open-source. It also returns the control and security of your sensitive data back to you, thus eliminating the use of a third-party cloud hosting service.
In this tutorial, we will install and configure a Nextcloud instance on an Ubuntu 18.04 server.
In order to complete the steps in this guide, you will need the following:
sudoprivileges and set up a basic firewall by following the Ubuntu 18.04 initial server setup guide.
Once you have completed the above steps, continue on to learn how to set up Nextcloud on your server.
We will be installing Nextcloud using the snappy packaging system. This packaging system, available on Ubuntu 18.04 by default, allows organizations to ship software, along with all associated dependencies and configuration, in a self-contained unit with automatic updates. This means that instead of installing and configuring a web and database server and then configuring the Nextcloud app to run on it, we can install the
snap package which handles the underlying systems automatically.
To download the Nextcloud
snap package and install it on the system, type:
- sudo snap install nextcloud
The Nextcloud package will be downloaded and installed on your server. You can confirm that the installation process was successful by listing the changes associated with the
- snap changes nextcloud
OutputID Status Spawn Ready Summary 2 Done today at 16:12 UTC today at 16:12 UTC Install "nextcloud" snap
The status and summary indicate that the installation was completed without any problems.
If you’d like some more information about the Nextcloud
snap, there are a few commands that can be helpful.
snap info command can show you the description, the Nextcloud management commands available, as well as the installed version and the snap channel being tracked:
- snap info nextcloud
Snaps can define interfaces they support, which consist of a slot and plug that, when hooked together, gives the snap access to certain capabilities or levels of access. For instance, snaps that need to act as a network client must have the
network interface. To see what snap “interfaces” this snap defines, type:
- snap interfaces nextcloud
OutputSlot Plug :network nextcloud :network-bind nextcloud - nextcloud:removable-media
To learn about all of the specific services and apps that this snap provides, you can take a look at the snap definition file by typing:
- cat /snap/nextcloud/current/meta/snap.yaml
This will allow you to see the individual components included within the snap, if you need help with debugging.
There are a few different ways you can configure the Nextcloud snap. In this guide, rather than creating an administrative user through the web interface, we will create one on the command line in order to avoid a small window where the administrator registration page would be accessible to anyone visiting your server’s IP address or domain name.
To configure Nextcloud with a new administrator account, use the
nextcloud.manual-install command. You must pass in a username and a password as arguments:
- sudo nextcloud.manual-install sammy password
The following message indicates that Nextcloud has been configured correctly:
OutputNextcloud is not installed - only a limited number of commands are available Nextcloud was successfully installed
Now that Nextcloud is installed, we need to adjust the trusted domains so that Nextcloud will respond to requests using the server’s domain name or IP address.
When installing from the command line, Nextcloud restricts the host names that the instance will respond to. By default, the service only responds to requests made to the “localhost” hostname. We will be accessing Nextcloud through the server’s domain name or IP address, so we’ll need to adjust this setting to accept these type of requests.
You can view the current settings by querying the value of the
- sudo nextcloud.occ config:system:get trusted_domains
localhost is present as the first value in the array. We can add an entry for our server’s domain name or IP address by typing:
- sudo nextcloud.occ config:system:set trusted_domains 1 --value=example.com
OutputSystem config value trusted_domains => 1 set to string example.com
If we query the trusted domains again, we will see that we now have two entries:
- sudo nextcloud.occ config:system:get trusted_domains
If you need to add another way of accessing the Nextcloud instance, you can add additional domains or addresses by rerunning the
config:system:set command with an incremented index number (the “1” in the first command) and adjusting the
Before we begin using Nextcloud, we need to secure the web interface.
If you have a domain name associated with your Nextcloud server, the Nextcloud snap can help you obtain and configure a trusted SSL certificate from Let’s Encrypt. If your Nextcloud server does not have a domain name, Nextcloud can configure a self-signed certificate which will encrypt your web traffic but won’t be able to verify the identity of your server.
With that in mind, follow the section below that matches your scenario.
If you have a domain name associated with your Nextcloud server, the best option for securing your web interface is to obtain a Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate.
Start by opening the ports in the firewall that Let’s Encrypt uses to validate domain ownership. This will make your Nextcloud login page publicly accessible, but since we already have an administrator account configured, no one will be able to hijack the installation:
- sudo ufw allow 80,443/tcp
Next, request a Let’s Encrypt certificate by typing:
- sudo nextcloud.enable-https lets-encrypt
You will first be asked whether your server meets the conditions necessary to request a certificate from the Let’s Encrypt service:
OutputIn order for Let's Encrypt to verify that you actually own the domain(s) for which you're requesting a certificate, there are a number of requirements of which you need to be aware: 1. In order to register with the Let's Encrypt ACME server, you must agree to the currently-in-effect Subscriber Agreement located here: https://letsencrypt.org/repository/ By continuing to use this tool you agree to these terms. Please cancel now if otherwise. 2. You must have the domain name(s) for which you want certificates pointing at the external IP address of this machine. 3. Both ports 80 and 443 on the external IP address of this machine must point to this machine (e.g. port forwarding might need to be setup on your router). Have you met these requirements? (y/n)
Type y to continue.
Next, you will be asked to provide an email address to use for recovery operations:
OutputPlease enter an email address (for urgent notices or key recovery): firstname.lastname@example.org
Finally, enter the domain name associated with your Nextcloud server:
OutputPlease enter your domain name(s) (space-separated): example.com
Your Let’s Encrypt certificate will be requested and, provided everything went well, the internal Apache instance will be restarted to immediately implement SSL:
OutputAttempting to obtain certificates... done Restarting apache... done
You can now skip ahead to sign into Nextcloud for the first time.
If your Nextcloud server does not have a domain name, you can still secure the web interface by generating a self-signed SSL certificate. This certificate will allow access to the web interface over an encrypted connection, but will be unable to verify the identity of your server, so your browser will likely display a warning.
To generate a self-signed certificate and configure Nextcloud to use it, type:
- sudo nextcloud.enable-https self-signed
OutputGenerating key and self-signed certificate... done Restarting apache... done
The above output indicates that Nextcloud generated and enabled a self-signed certificate.
Now that the interface is secure, open the web ports in the firewall to allow access to the web interface:
- sudo ufw allow 80,443/tcp
You are now ready to log into Nextcloud for the first time.
Now that Nextcloud is configured, visit your server’s domain name or IP address in your web browser:
Note: If you set up a self-signed SSL certificate, your browser may display a warning that the connection is insecure because the server’s certificate is not signed by a recognized certificate authority. This is expected for self-signed certificates, so feel free to click through the warning to proceed to the site.
Since you have already configure an administrator account from the command line, you will be taken to the Nextcloud login page. Enter the credentials you created for the administrative user:
Click the Log in button to log in to the Nextcloud web interface.
The first time you enter, a window will be displayed with links to various Nextcloud clients that can be used to interact with and manage your Nextcloud instance:
Click through to download any clients you are interested in, or exit out of the window by clicking the X in the upper-right corner. You will be taken to the main Nextcloud interface, where you can begin to upload and manage files:
Your installation is now complete and secured. Feel free to explore the interface to get more familiarity with the features and functionality of your new system.
Nextcloud can replicate the capabilities of popular third-party cloud storage services. Content can be shared between users or externally with public URLs. The advantage of Nextcloud is that the information is stored securely in a place that you control.
Explore the interface and for additional functionality, install plugins using Nextcloud’s app store.
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Followed this tutorial - web interface works fine. Trying to connect via webDAV, getting a 405 - method not allowed. Not completely sure what I need to do next…
Note - this is fixed from https://github.com/nextcloud/nextcloud-snap/issues/514#issuecomment-382010167
So I already have an Apache httpd server on my droplet. I have webmin.mydomain.tld working with proxypass to WebMin, and www.mydomain.tld is my web page. BOTH already have LE SSL certs of their own. I want to install nextcloud, but have it at nextcloud.mydomain.tld … and not interfere with my main web page or my webmin install. Will this work for that purpose? How does the apache server inside the snap relate to the already running apache server outside the snap? In other words, how do I get just the nextcloud traffic to the snap while still serving my other content outside the snap? Thanks.
Will the SSL auto renew or does that have to be setup?
A very good article. Can you help me solve two problems?
The __Host prefix mitigates cookie injection vulnerabilities within potential third-party software sharing the same second level domain. It is an additional hardening on top of ‘normal’ same-site cookies;
The “Strict-Transport-Security” HTTP header is not set to at least “15552000” seconds. For enhanced security, it is recommended to enable HSTS as described in the security tips.
This was a great tutorial. Just want to add one command that helped me fix my problems: sudo snap restart nextcloud
After adding another trusted domain, the command above saved me.
Thanks for the great article! The one thing that would make it perfect is an explanation in how to set the
datadirectoryto a Volume or Space (as the primary storage). I can’t find an working solution anywhere on the web.
I am no developer or programmer, but I was able to follow this tutuorial and set up my own nextcloud server. All works well and I am quite pleased with the results. Now that I have tested it for a while after getting it all working and configured, I have a question about storage. When I created the droplet, I used a smaller server with only 25 gb (it is only for personal/family use). Since then, I added a volume of 100 gb thinking (hoping?) it would increase my storage. Is that all I need to do? Do I need to tweak anything in the nextcloud server to make use of the storage? I am thinking of upping my storage even more down the road. If it matters, I plan on only having up to five users and I can allocate it according to what I think is needed. Also, how do I know if it is attached and in use? Is there a way to see how much storage I have? Yes I know my questions are pretty basic, but I ask that you take pity on me and help. Any help or advice is greatly appreciated.
Which cloud hosting service I can recommend is en.ocloud.de, as it is cheap and works very well, as the servers are never overloaded.
Hello! I have done the tutorial with digital ocean for sever set up, lamp, and nextcloud. however I’m sticking at trying to secure access to nextcloud using letsencrypt. There message is:
Domain: mydomain.com Type: unauthorized Detail: Invalid response from http://mydomain.com/.well-known/acme-challenge/RUJ1OPvU4_zq3aA5EjYqMMI6oGVAwoEKeD19-5Vwrpo [server IP ]: “<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"> <html><head> <title>400 Bad Request</title> </head><body> <h1>Bad Request</h1”
To fix these errors, please make sure that your domain name was entered correctly and the DNS A/AAAA record(s) for that domain contain(s) the right IP address.
I have a cname and valid a records set up through digitalocean and my domain points to the public IP for the web server. Any help would be appreciated !
I followed these instructions, up to the SSL part, in a ubuntu 18.04 LXC. (I use a reverse-proxy to access it)
I cannot add users. There is a non specific error.
I noticed the file system is mounted read-only:
mount |grep next
snapfuse on /snap/nextcloud/13453 type fuse.snapfuse (ro,nodev,relatime,user_id=0,group_id=0,allow_other) nsfs on /run/snapd/ns/nextcloud.mnt type nsfs (rw) root@liked-pheasant:~# ls /snap/nextcloud/ 13453/ current/ root@liked-pheasant:~# ls /snap/nextcloud/13453/ -ld drwxr-xr-x 25 root root 0 May 20 03:48 /snap/nextcloud/13453/