SQL data types define the type of value that can be stored in a table column. For example, if you want a column to store only integer values, you can define its data type as
SQL data types can be broadly divided into the following categories.
In this article, you will learn about different categories of SQL data types.
Note: Not all data types are supported by every relational database vendor.
For example, the Oracle database doesn’t support
DATETIME, and MySQL doesn’t support
CLOB. When designing database schemas and writing SQL queries, make sure to check if the data types are supported.
Note: Data types listed here don’t include all the data types. These are the most commonly used data types. Some relational database vendors have their own data types that might not be listed here.
For example, Microsoft SQL Server has
SMALLMONEY data types, but since they’re not supported by other popular database vendors, they’re not listed here.
Note: Every relational database vendor has its own maximum size limit for different data types.
Be sure to select the appropriate data type for your particular scenario.
|DECIMAL||-10^38 + 1||10^38 - 1|
|NUMERIC||-10^38 + 1||10^38 - 1|
|DATE||Stores date in the format
|TIME||Stores time in the format
|DATETIME||Stores date and time information in the format
|TIMESTAMP||Stores number of seconds passed since the Unix epoch (
|YEAR||Stores year in a 2-digit or 4-digit format. Range 1901 to 2155 in 4-digit format. Range 70 to 69, representing 1970 to 2069.|
|CHAR||Fixed length with a maximum length of 8,000 characters|
|VARCHAR||Variable-length storage with a maximum length of 8,000 characters|
|VARCHAR(max)||Variable-length storage with provided max characters, not supported in MySQL|
|TEXT||Variable-length storage with a maximum size of 2GB data|
Note: These data types are for character streams. They should not be used with Unicode data.
|NCHAR||Fixed length with a maximum length of 4,000 characters|
|NVARCHAR||Variable-length storage with a maximum length of 4,000 characters|
|NVARCHAR(max)||Variable-length storage with provided max characters|
|NTEXT||Variable-length storage with a maximum size of 1GB data|
Note: These data types are not supported in MySQL databases.
|BINARY||Fixed length with a maximum length of 8,000 bytes|
|VARBINARY||Variable-length storage with a maximum length of 8,000 bytes|
|VARBINARY(max)||Variable-length storage with provided max bytes|
|IMAGE||Variable-length storage with a maximum size of 2 GB binary data|
|CLOB||Character large objects that can hold up to 2 GB|
|BLOB||For large binary objects|
|XML||For storing XML data|
|JSON||For storing JSON data|
In this article, you learned about different categories of SQL data types.
Continue your learning with more SQL tutorials.
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Thank you, informative and to the point.
Where is enum
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some columns like salary will not take int ,smallint data types .it takes only char and varchar why???
- prasanna lakshmi
Hi Pankaj, The tutorial contents and the graphical presentation are absolutely fantastic. The amount of efforts you have taken is highly appreciated and I would like to express my sincere gratitude. God Bless you dear !!
- Sylvester Marshall
Good Evening Shri.Pankaj Sir, very very useful & beneficial of your SQL lecture. Great thanks full for your Guide in SQL study materials. by Rajaram
Hello everyone here I am new at sql How can i insert data into a table which contain both Character and letter (For eg A001) Which datatype should i use here. Please let me know
- Saurabh Rawat
Type BIT is not a numeric data type, its binary. Also it is no longer part of SQL standard. So better to remove it. Type YEAR does not exist in SQL standard. Also never use year numbers with only 2 digits (remember year2k bug?) You miss the type BOOLEAN which can have values true or false. It is fundamentally different from BIT. You miss the type INTERVAL of which there are 2 basic ones: INTERVAL SECONDS (can include fractions) and INTERVAL MONTHS. Type TEXT and NTEXT are old synonyms for CLOB, so use CLOB (or CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT). Type IMAGE is an old synonym for BLOB, so use BLOB (or BINARY LARGE OBJECT).
- Mr SQL