By Mark Drake
Manager, Developer Education
Many websites and applications start off with their web server and database backend hosted on the same machine. With time, though, a setup like this can become cumbersome and difficult to scale. A common solution is to separate these functions by setting up a remote database, allowing the server and database to grow at their own pace on their own machines.
One of the more common problems that users run into when trying to set up a remote MySQL database is that their MySQL instance is only configured to listen for local connections. This is MySQL’s default setting, but it won’t work for a remote database setup since MySQL must be able to listen for an external IP address where the server can be reached. To enable this, open up your
- sudo nano /etc/mysql/mysql.conf.d/mysqld.cnf
Navigate to the line that begins with the
bind-address directive. It will look like this:
. . . lc-messages-dir = /usr/share/mysql skip-external-locking # # Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on # localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure. bind-address = 127.0.0.1 . . .
By default, this value is set to
127.0.0.1, meaning that the server will only look for local connections. You will need to change this directive to reference an external IP address. For the purposes of troubleshooting, you could set this directive to a wildcard IP address, either
. . . lc-messages-dir = /usr/share/mysql skip-external-locking # # Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on # localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure. bind-address = 0.0.0.0 . . .
Note: In certain versions of MySQL the
bind-address directive may not be in the
mysqld.cnf file by default. In this case, add the following highlighted line to the bottom of the file:
. . . [mysqld] pid-file = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock datadir = /var/lib/mysql log-error = /var/log/mysql/error.log bind-address = 0.0.0.0
After changing this line, save and close the file (
CTRL + X,
ENTER if you edited it with
Then restart the MySQL service to put the changes you made to
mysqld.cnf into effect:
- sudo systemctl restart mysql
If you have an existing MySQL user account which you plan to use to connect to the database from your remote host, you’ll need to reconfigure that account to connect from the remote server instead of localhost. To do so, open up the MySQL client as your root MySQL user or with another privileged user account:
- sudo mysql
If you’ve enabled password authentication for root, you will need to use the following command to access the MySQL shell instead:
- mysql -u root -p
To change a user’s host, you can use MySQL’s
RENAME USER command. Run the following command, making sure to change
sammy to the name of your MySQL user account and
remote_server_ip to your remote server’s IP address:
- RENAME USER 'sammy'@'localhost' TO 'sammy'@'remote_server_ip';
Alternatively, you can create a new user account that will only connect from the remote host with the following command:
- CREATE USER 'sammy'@'remote_server_ip' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Note: This command will create a user that authenticates with MySQL’s default authentication plugin,
caching_sha2_password. However, there is a known issue with some versions of PHP that can cause problems with this plugin.
If you plan to use this database with a PHP application — phpMyAdmin, for example — you may want to create a remote user that will authenticate with the older, though still secure,
mysql_native_password plugin instead:
- CREATE USER 'sammy'@'remote_server_ip' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
If you aren’t sure, you can always create a user that authenticates with
caching_sha2_plugin and then
ALTER it later on with this command:
- ALTER USER 'sammy'@'remote_server_ip' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
Then grant the new user the appropriate privileges for your particular needs. The following example grants a user global privileges to
DROP databases, tables, and users, as well as the power to
DELETE data from any table on the server. It also grants the user the ability to query data with
SELECT, create foreign keys with the
REFERENCES keyword, and perform
FLUSH operations with the
RELOAD privilege. However, you should only grant users the permissions they need, so feel free to adjust your own user’s privileges as necessary.
- GRANT CREATE, ALTER, DROP, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, REFERENCES, RELOAD on *.* TO 'sammy'@'remote_server_ip' WITH GRANT OPTION;
Following this, it’s good practice to run the
FLUSH PRIVILEGES command. This will free up any memory that the server cached as a result of the preceding
CREATE USER and
- FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Then you can exit the MySQL client:
Lastly, assuming you’ve configured a firewall on your database server, you will also need to open port
3306 — MySQL’s default port — to allow traffic to MySQL.
If you only plan to access the database server from one specific machine, you can grant that machine exclusive permission to connect to the database remotely with the following command. Make sure to replace
remote_IP_address with the actual IP address of the machine you plan to connect with:
- sudo ufw allow from remote_IP_address to any port 3306
If you need to access the database from other machines in the future, you can grant them access on an ad hoc basis with this command. Just remember to include their respective IP addresses.
Alternatively, you can allow connections to your MySQL database from any IP address with the following command:
Warning: This command will enable anyone to access your MySQL database. Do not run it if your database holds any sensitive data.
- sudo ufw allow 3306
Following this, try accessing your database remotely from another machine:
Note: If you added a firewall rule to only allow connections from a specific IP address, you must try to access the database with the machine associated with that address.
- mysql -u user -h database_server_ip -p
If you’re able to access your database, it confirms that the
bind-address directive in your configuration file was the issue. Please note, though, that setting
0.0.0.0 is insecure as it allows connections to your server from any IP address. On the other hand, if you’re still unable to access the database remotely, then something else may be causing the issue. In either case, you may find it helpful to follow our guide on How To Set Up a Remote Database to Optimize Site Performance with MySQL on Ubuntu 18.04 to set up a more secure remote database configuration.
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This guide is intended to serve as a troubleshooting resource and starting point as you diagnose your MySQL setup. We’ll go over some of the issues that many MySQL users encounter and provide guidance for troubleshooting specific problems. We will also include links to DigitalOcean tutorials and the official MySQL documentation that may be useful in certain cases.
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Thank you, the only thing that might be missing is that by default port 3306 should be blocked by your firewall.
should do the trick ;)
I applied all steps 2 times but it is not working for me. I can’t access the database from other servers or apps. Mysql is in a droplet server, the port is open and the user was created for the public IP. Another idea?
When I change the bind_address to my (APACHE+php) IP server and I restart the MySQL server he refuses to restart and showed me an error. It worked just if I set the IP address to 0.0.0.0 and that’s not good for security I just want my (apache+php) server to connect to MySQL.Do you guys have a problem if you change the bind_address to a specific address.
When i checked /var/log/mysql/error.log it say Can’t start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Cannot assign requested address .
mysql>GRANT ALL ON . to root@‘220.127.116.11’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘put-your-password’; mysql>FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
I followed this steps, but I still cannot connect to my MySQL database running on my digitalocean server. I did these steps:
Am I missing something?
You missed to mention about opening port in firewall.
To allow connection from any IP address to port 3306:
To allow connection from one particular IP address to port 3306
This almost worked for me lol. I’m trying to set up a development LAMP server in a virtual machine. I finally managed to get most of it set up. The VM is running the server stuff (duh) but I’m using the host machine (Windows 10) to do the testing. I got Windows to access the server; I created a “test.php” file with a simple echo command to test if it would behave as expected and it did.
Now I’m trying to set up MySQL to allow remote access, which is how I ended up here. I want to use a graphical interface to set up databases and tables and everything. As far as the VM and Windows itself is concerned, the server is just another real PC on the same network. At first, MySQL Workbench was throwing an error that it was unable to connect to the server. Following the instructions here, the error became that it wasn’t allowed to access the server.
I don’t know where my issue is. When I installed MySQL, I wasn’t asked to make a password and I wasn’t made aware of one being created. One website pointed me towards a file that didn’t exist, saying a random generated password was there. Another website said it was in the error log. The error log said it created a “root” user with a blank password. What should I do next?
|–EDIT–| Turns out I just needed to access MySQL from the server (VM) itself and create a new user. If anyone else has this issue, here’s what I did:
From Linux’s command line, run, without quotes, “mysql” This starts the utility where you input SQL commands to be ran. You know you’re here when the command line leads with “mysql>”
Type in, also without double quotes “CREATE USER ‘<USERNAME>’@‘<SERVER_HOSTNAME>’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘<PASSWORD>’;” <USERNAME> will be the name of the new user. <SERVER_HOSTNAME> should be the host name of the remote computer. I used the IP address of my host machine. And of course, <PASSWORD> will be the new users password. The single quotes (aka: apostrophes) around these three items is required, I believe. I left them in and it worked just fine.
Thank you, it worked.