curl https://install.meteor.com/ | sh
meteor create ~/my_cool_app
meteor bundle myapp.tgz
PORT=3000 MONGO_URL=mongodb://localhost:27017/myapp node bundle/main.js
You might also need this command (if you are having a problem running meteorite). Also, remember that you don't need node or npm, just run the command that Andrew gives above (curl https://install.meteor.com/ | sh) and meteor brings in node and npm.
Here is a tutorial on this subject.
This article says there are issues with Ubuntu 14, but I haven't had any trouble so I'm not sure what he is talking about.