Question

Having Problem with Audio I/O when using Headless Firefox

  • Posted May 9, 2014

Hi

I have installed ALSA and Xvfb. I can bring up a headless firefox. I have ALSA driver installed:

root@ubuntu-test:~/alsa/alsa-driver-1.0.25# modprobe -l |grep sound kernel/sound/soundcore.ko kernel/sound/core/snd-hrtimer.ko kernel/sound/core/snd-rawmidi.ko kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-dummy.ko kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-virmidi.ko kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi.ko kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi-emul.ko kernel/sound/drivers/pcsp/snd-pcsp.ko kernel/sound/pci/snd-ens1370.ko

What I need to do now is to make some test using a flash / HTML 5 page using Selenium.

When I bring up the browser, it is displaying “We couldn’t detect a proper audio setup. Please ensure your microphone is working and try again.”

How do I setup some virtual Audio for I/O so I can continue with the test?

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What version of Ubuntu are you running? How did you install ALSA? <br> <br>On Ubuntu 14.04, after installing the package “alsa-base” I have it available. <br> <br><pre> <br># lsmod <br>Module Size Used by <br>snd_dummy 20483 0 <br>snd_pcm 102099 1 snd_dummy <br>snd_page_alloc 18710 1 snd_pcm <br>snd_timer 29482 1 snd_pcm <br>snd 69238 3 snd_dummy,snd_timer,snd_pcm <br>soundcore 12680 1 snd <br>ppdev 17671 0 <br>kvm_intel 143060 0 <br>vmwgfx 175358 0 <br>kvm 451511 1 kvm_intel <br>ttm 85115 1 vmwgfx <br>psmouse 102222 0 <br>serio_raw 13462 0 <br>drm 302817 2 ttm,vmwgfx <br>i2c_piix4 22155 0 <br>parport_pc 32701 1 <br>lp 17759 0 <br>mac_hid 13205 0 <br>parport 42348 3 lp,ppdev,parport_pc <br>floppy 69370 0 <br></pre>

I am getting <br>root@ubuntu-test:~# modprobe snd-seq-dummy <br>FATAL: Error inserting snd_seq_dummy (/lib/modules/3.5.0-48-generic/kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-dummy.ko): Invalid argument <br>root@ubuntu-test:~# <br> <br>How do I fix this?

Hi <br> <br>I followed the website and got ALSA installed. <br> <br>snd-dummy is not available, but snd-seq-dummy is there. Is it the same? <br> <br>What should my next step be? <br> <br>root@ubuntu-test:~# modprobe -l | grep dummy <br>kernel/drivers/net/dummy.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-dummy.ko <br>root@ubuntu-test:~# <br> <br>root@ubuntu-test:~# modprobe snd-dummy <br>FATAL: Module snd_dummy not found. <br>root@ubuntu-test:~# modprobe -l <br>kernel/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce-xeon75xx.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kernel/cpu/mcheck/mce-inject.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kernel/msr.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kernel/cpuid.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kernel/microcode.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/aes-x86_64.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/camellia-x86_64.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/blowfish-x86_64.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/twofish-x86_64.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/twofish-x86_64-3way.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/salsa20-x86_64.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/serpent-sse2-x86_64.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/aesni-intel.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/ghash-clmulni-intel.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/crypto/sha1-ssse3.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kvm/kvm.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kvm/kvm-intel.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/kvm/kvm-amd.ko <br>kernel/fs/nfs_common/nfs_acl.ko <br>kernel/fs/fat/msdos.ko <br>kernel/fs/nls/nls_iso8859-1.ko <br>kernel/fs/exofs/libore.ko <br>kernel/fs/binfmt_misc.ko <br>kernel/fs/configfs/configfs.ko <br>kernel/fs/fscache/fscache.ko <br>kernel/fs/ext2/ext2.ko <br>kernel/fs/squashfs/squashfs.ko <br>kernel/fs/isofs/isofs.ko <br>kernel/fs/nfs/nfs.ko <br>kernel/fs/nfs/nfs_layout_nfsv41_files.ko <br>kernel/fs/nfs/objlayout/objlayoutdriver.ko <br>kernel/fs/nfs/blocklayout/blocklayoutdriver.ko <br>kernel/fs/nfsd/nfsd.ko <br>kernel/fs/lockd/lockd.ko <br>kernel/fs/cifs/cifs.ko <br>kernel/fs/ufs/ufs.ko <br>kernel/fs/autofs4/autofs4.ko <br>kernel/fs/overlayfs/overlayfs.ko <br>kernel/fs/udf/udf.ko <br>kernel/fs/xfs/xfs.ko <br>kernel/fs/9p/9p.ko <br>kernel/fs/cachefiles/cachefiles.ko <br>kernel/fs/btrfs/btrfs.ko <br>kernel/fs/ceph/ceph.ko <br>kernel/crypto/seqiv.ko <br>kernel/crypto/crypto_user.ko <br>kernel/crypto/vmac.ko <br>kernel/crypto/xcbc.ko <br>kernel/crypto/crypto_null.ko <br>kernel/crypto/md4.ko <br>kernel/crypto/rmd128.ko <br>kernel/crypto/rmd160.ko <br>kernel/crypto/rmd256.ko <br>kernel/crypto/rmd320.ko <br>kernel/crypto/sha512_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/wp512.ko <br>kernel/crypto/tgr192.ko <br>kernel/crypto/gf128mul.ko <br>kernel/crypto/pcbc.ko <br>kernel/crypto/cts.ko <br>kernel/crypto/lrw.ko <br>kernel/crypto/xts.ko <br>kernel/crypto/ctr.ko <br>kernel/crypto/gcm.ko <br>kernel/crypto/ccm.ko <br>kernel/crypto/pcrypt.ko <br>kernel/crypto/cryptd.ko <br>kernel/crypto/des_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/fcrypt.ko <br>kernel/crypto/blowfish_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/blowfish_common.ko <br>kernel/crypto/twofish_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/twofish_common.ko <br>kernel/crypto/serpent_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/camellia_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/cast5.ko <br>kernel/crypto/cast6.ko <br>kernel/crypto/arc4.ko <br>kernel/crypto/tea.ko <br>kernel/crypto/khazad.ko <br>kernel/crypto/anubis.ko <br>kernel/crypto/seed.ko <br>kernel/crypto/salsa20_generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/deflate.ko <br>kernel/crypto/zlib.ko <br>kernel/crypto/michael_mic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/authenc.ko <br>kernel/crypto/authencesn.ko <br>kernel/crypto/ansi_cprng.ko <br>kernel/crypto/tcrypt.ko <br>kernel/crypto/ghash-generic.ko <br>kernel/crypto/af_alg.ko <br>kernel/crypto/algif_hash.ko <br>kernel/crypto/algif_skcipher.ko <br>kernel/crypto/xor.ko <br>kernel/crypto/async_tx/async_tx.ko <br>kernel/crypto/async_tx/async_memcpy.ko <br>kernel/crypto/async_tx/async_xor.ko <br>kernel/crypto/async_tx/async_pq.ko <br>kernel/crypto/async_tx/async_raid6_recov.ko <br>kernel/crypto/async_tx/raid6test.ko <br>kernel/drivers/pci/hotplug/acpiphp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/vgastate.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/sysfillrect.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/syscopyarea.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/sysimgblt.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/fb_sys_fops.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/cirrusfb.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/xen-fbfront.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/vga16fb.ko <br>kernel/drivers/video/output.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/apei/einj.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/apei/erst-dbg.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/video.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/pci_slot.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/sbshc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/sbs.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/ec_sys.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_pad.ko <br>kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_ipmi.ko <br>kernel/drivers/virtio/virtio_balloon.ko <br>kernel/drivers/xen/xen-evtchn.ko <br>kernel/drivers/xen/xen-gntdev.ko <br>kernel/drivers/xen/xen-gntalloc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/xen/xenfs/xenfs.ko <br>kernel/drivers/xen/xen-pciback/xen-pciback.ko <br>kernel/drivers/xen/xen-privcmd.ko <br>kernel/drivers/char/raw.ko <br>kernel/drivers/char/lp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/char/nvram.ko <br>kernel/drivers/char/ppdev.ko <br>kernel/drivers/char/ipmi/ipmi_msghandler.ko <br>kernel/drivers/char/hangcheck-timer.ko <br>kernel/drivers/block/floppy.ko <br>kernel/drivers/block/nbd.ko <br>kernel/drivers/block/cryptoloop.ko <br>kernel/drivers/block/rbd.ko <br>kernel/drivers/misc/vmw_balloon.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_tgt.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/raid_class.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_fc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_iscsi.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_sas.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/libsas/libsas.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/device_handler/scsi_dh.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/libiscsi.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/libiscsi_tcp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/iscsi_tcp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/BusLogic.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/qla1280.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/vmw_pvscsi.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/hv_storvsc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/osd/libosd.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/osd/osd.ko <br>kernel/drivers/scsi/scsi_wait_scan.ko <br>kernel/drivers/ata/ahci.ko <br>kernel/drivers/ata/libahci.ko <br>kernel/drivers/ata/acard-ahci.ko <br>kernel/drivers/ata/ahci_platform.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/8390/ne2k-pci.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/8390/8390.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/amd/pcnet32.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/xircom_cb.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/dmfe.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/winbond-840.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/de2104x.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/tulip.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/de4x5.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/dec/tulip/uli526x.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/intel/e1000/e1000.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/intel/e1000e/e1000e.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/intel/igbvf/igbvf.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/intel/ixgbevf/ixgbevf.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/realtek/8139cp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ethernet/realtek/8139too.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/ppp_async.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/bsd_comp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/ppp_deflate.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/ppp_mppe.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/ppp_synctty.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/pppox.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/pppoe.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ppp/pptp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/slip/slip.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/bonding/bonding.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/dummy.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/eql.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/ifb.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/macvlan.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/macvtap.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/netconsole.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/veth.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/appletalk/ipddp.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/vmxnet3/vmxnet3.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/xen-netback/xen-netback.ko <br>kernel/drivers/net/hyperv/hv_netvsc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptbase.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptscsih.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptspi.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptfc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptsas.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptctl.ko <br>kernel/drivers/message/fusion/mptlan.ko <br>kernel/drivers/usb/storage/usb-storage.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/serio/serport.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/serio/serio_raw.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/mouse/psmouse.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/touchscreen/usbtouchscreen.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/misc/xen-kbdfront.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/joydev.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/evbug.ko <br>kernel/drivers/watchdog/softdog.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/linear.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/raid0.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/raid1.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/raid10.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/raid456.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/multipath.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/faulty.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-bufio.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-crypt.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-multipath.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-round-robin.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-queue-length.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-service-time.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-snapshot.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/persistent-data/dm-persistent-data.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-mirror.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-log.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-region-hash.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-zero.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-raid.ko <br>kernel/drivers/md/dm-thin-pool.ko <br>kernel/drivers/parport/parport.ko <br>kernel/drivers/parport/parport_pc.ko <br>kernel/drivers/input/gameport/gameport.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/ib_core.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/ib_mad.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/ib_sa.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/ib_cm.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/iw_cm.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/ib_addr.ko <br>kernel/drivers/infiniband/core/rdma_cm.ko <br>kernel/drivers/hv/hv_vmbus.ko <br>kernel/drivers/hv/hv_utils.ko <br>kernel/sound/soundcore.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/snd-hrtimer.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/snd-rawmidi.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-dummy.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-virmidi.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi.ko <br>kernel/sound/core/seq/snd-seq-midi-emul.ko <br>kernel/sound/drivers/pcsp/snd-pcsp.ko <br>kernel/sound/pci/snd-ens1370.ko <br>kernel/arch/x86/oprofile/oprofile.ko <br>kernel/net/core/pktgen.ko <br>kernel/net/core/netprio_cgroup.ko <br>kernel/net/802/p8022.ko <br>kernel/net/802/psnap.ko <br>kernel/net/802/p8023.ko <br>kernel/net/802/stp.ko <br>kernel/net/802/garp.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_police.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_gact.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_mirred.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_ipt.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_nat.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_pedit.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_simple.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_skbedit.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/act_csum.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_cbq.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_htb.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_hfsc.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_red.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_gred.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_ingress.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_dsmark.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_sfb.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_sfq.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_tbf.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_teql.ko <br>kernel/net/sched/sch_prio.ko 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<br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_comment.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_connbytes.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_connlimit.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_conntrack.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_cpu.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_dccp.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_devgroup.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_dscp.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_ecn.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_esp.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_hashlimit.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_helper.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_hl.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_iprange.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_ipvs.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_length.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_limit.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_mac.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_multiport.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_nfacct.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_osf.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_owner.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_physdev.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_pkttype.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_policy.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_quota.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_rateest.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_realm.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_recent.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_sctp.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_socket.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_state.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_statistic.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_string.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_tcpmss.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_time.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/xt_u32.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_bitmap_ip.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_bitmap_ipmac.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_bitmap_port.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_ip.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_ipport.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_ipportip.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_ipportnet.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_net.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_netport.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_hash_netiface.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipset/ip_set_list_set.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_rr.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_wrr.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_lc.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_wlc.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_lblc.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_lblcr.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_dh.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_sh.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_sed.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_nq.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_ftp.ko <br>kernel/net/netfilter/ipvs/ip_vs_pe_sip.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_conntrack_ipv4.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_defrag_ipv4.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_amanda.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_ftp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_h323.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_irc.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_pptp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_sip.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_snmp_basic.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_tftp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_proto_dccp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_proto_gre.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_proto_udplite.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/nf_nat_proto_sctp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ip_tables.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/iptable_filter.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/iptable_mangle.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/iptable_nat.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/iptable_raw.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/iptable_security.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_ah.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_rpfilter.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_CLUSTERIP.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_ECN.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_MASQUERADE.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_NETMAP.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_REDIRECT.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_REJECT.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/ipt_ULOG.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/arp_tables.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/arpt_mangle.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/netfilter/arptable_filter.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/ipip.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/gre.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/ip_gre.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/ah4.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/esp4.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/ipcomp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/xfrm4_tunnel.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/xfrm4_mode_beet.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tunnel4.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/xfrm4_mode_transport.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/xfrm4_mode_tunnel.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/inet_diag.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_diag.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/udp_diag.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_probe.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_bic.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_westwood.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_highspeed.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_hybla.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_htcp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_vegas.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_veno.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_scalable.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_lp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_yeah.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv4/tcp_illinois.ko <br>kernel/net/xfrm/xfrm_algo.ko <br>kernel/net/xfrm/xfrm_user.ko <br>kernel/net/xfrm/xfrm_ipcomp.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6_tables.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6table_filter.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6table_mangle.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6table_raw.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6table_security.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/nf_conntrack_ipv6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/nf_defrag_ipv6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_ah.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_eui64.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_frag.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_ipv6header.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_mh.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_hbh.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_rpfilter.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_rt.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/netfilter/ip6t_REJECT.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/ah6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/esp6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/ipcomp6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/xfrm6_tunnel.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/tunnel6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/xfrm6_mode_transport.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/xfrm6_mode_tunnel.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/xfrm6_mode_ro.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/xfrm6_mode_beet.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/mip6.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/sit.ko <br>kernel/net/ipv6/ip6_tunnel.ko <br>kernel/net/8021q/8021q.ko <br>kernel/net/llc/llc.ko <br>kernel/net/llc/llc2.ko <br>kernel/net/key/af_key.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/bridge.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebtables.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebtable_broute.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebtable_filter.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebtable_nat.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_802_3.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_among.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_arp.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_ip.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_ip6.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_limit.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_mark_m.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_pkttype.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_stp.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_vlan.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_arpreply.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_mark.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_dnat.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_redirect.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_snat.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_log.ko <br>kernel/net/bridge/netfilter/ebt_nflog.ko <br>kernel/net/ipx/ipx.ko <br>kernel/net/appletalk/appletalk.ko <br>kernel/net/wanrouter/wanrouter.ko <br>kernel/net/x25/x25.ko <br>kernel/net/lapb/lapb.ko <br>kernel/net/netrom/netrom.ko <br>kernel/net/rose/rose.ko <br>kernel/net/ax25/ax25.ko <br>kernel/net/can/can.ko <br>kernel/net/can/can-raw.ko <br>kernel/net/can/can-bcm.ko <br>kernel/net/can/can-gw.ko <br>kernel/net/irda/irda.ko <br>kernel/net/irda/irlan/irlan.ko <br>kernel/net/irda/irnet/irnet.ko <br>kernel/net/irda/ircomm/ircomm.ko <br>kernel/net/irda/ircomm/ircomm-tty.ko <br>kernel/net/sunrpc/sunrpc.ko <br>kernel/net/sunrpc/auth_gss/auth_rpcgss.ko <br>kernel/net/rxrpc/af-rxrpc.ko <br>kernel/net/rxrpc/rxkad.ko <br>kernel/net/atm/atm.ko <br>kernel/net/atm/clip.ko <br>kernel/net/atm/br2684.ko <br>kernel/net/atm/lec.ko <br>kernel/net/atm/mpoa.ko <br>kernel/net/atm/pppoatm.ko <br>kernel/net/decnet/netfilter/dn_rtmsg.ko <br>kernel/net/decnet/decnet.ko <br>kernel/net/phonet/phonet.ko <br>kernel/net/phonet/pn_pep.ko <br>kernel/net/dccp/dccp.ko <br>kernel/net/dccp/dccp_ipv4.ko <br>kernel/net/dccp/dccp_ipv6.ko <br>kernel/net/dccp/dccp_diag.ko <br>kernel/net/dccp/dccp_probe.ko <br>kernel/net/sctp/sctp.ko <br>kernel/net/sctp/sctp_probe.ko <br>kernel/net/tipc/tipc.ko <br>kernel/net/9p/9pnet.ko <br>kernel/net/9p/9pnet_virtio.ko <br>kernel/net/9p/9pnet_rdma.ko <br>kernel/net/ieee802154/ieee802154.ko <br>kernel/net/ieee802154/af_802154.ko <br>kernel/net/ieee802154/6lowpan.ko <br>kernel/net/ceph/libceph.ko <br>kernel/lib/xz/xz_dec_test.ko <br>kernel/lib/test-kstrtox.ko <br>kernel/lib/crc-ccitt.ko <br>kernel/lib/crc-itu-t.ko <br>kernel/lib/crc7.ko <br>kernel/lib/libcrc32c.ko <br>kernel/lib/crc8.ko <br>kernel/lib/zlib_deflate/zlib_deflate.ko <br>kernel/lib/reed_solomon/reed_solomon.ko <br>kernel/lib/bch.ko <br>kernel/lib/raid6/raid6_pq.ko <br>kernel/lib/ts_kmp.ko <br>kernel/lib/ts_bm.ko <br>kernel/lib/ts_fsm.ko <br>kernel/lib/cpu-notifier-error-inject.ko <br>kernel/lib/lru_cache.ko <br>kernel/lib/cordic.ko <br>updates/acore/seq/oss/snd-seq-oss.ko <br>updates/acore/oss/snd-pcm-oss.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-atihdmi.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-nvhdmi.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-cmedia.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-intelhdmi.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-cirrus.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-analog.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-intel.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-ca0110.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-idt.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-ca0132.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-via.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-conexant.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-si3054.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-hdmi.ko <br>updates/pci/hda/snd-hda-codec-realtek.ko <br>updates/acore/seq/snd-seq.ko <br>updates/acore/seq/snd-seq-midi-event.ko <br>updates/acore/seq/snd-seq-device.ko <br>updates/acore/snd-page-alloc.ko <br>updates/acore/snd-hwdep.ko <br>updates/acore/snd-timer.ko <br>updates/acore/oss/snd-mixer-oss.ko <br>updates/acore/snd-pcm.ko <br>updates/acore/snd.ko <br>initrd/vesafb.ko

ALSA provides a “dummy” driver: <br> <br>http://www.alsa-project.org/main/index.php/Matrix:Module-dummy <br> <br>You should be able to enable it with: <br> <br><pre> <br>modprobe snd-dummy <br></pre> <br> <br>