So I finally got things working. I wanted to write down what it was I needed to do to get things to running so hopefully anyone with a similar issue doesn't have to sink in as much time as I did.
1) I thought all you needed to do to enable private networking on my droplets was just click on the button in the control panel. Turns out there is a bit more work involved, you can see what you need to do here:
2) Make sure you are downloading the latest version of keepalived. The version currently listed in the tutorial has a bug in it that prevents it from running the master.sh script. As of me writing this the newest version is 1.2.23. Just check here to see what latest version is:
3) The python script that the tutorial uses to change the floating IP requires the requests module, which does not come standard with python that is bundled with Ubuntu 16. If you haven't already, install python pip, and then use pip to install the requests module. I also ran into an error trying to install requests involving my locale. Here are the commands I used to get the python script to work
apt-get install python-pip
pip install requests
4) With changes that came along with Ubuntu 16, upstart doesn't apply anymore. I needed to create a new service on each of my droplets so that I could run them with systemctl. Doing the following set up things correctly on my droplets
sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/keepalived.service
Then I copied the following into the file, saved and closed it on both droplets
# keepalived control files for systemd
# Incorporates fixes from RedHat bug #769726.
Description=LVS and VRRP High Availability monitor
# Ubuntu/Debian convention:
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
# keepalived needs to be in charge of killing its own children.
I then used the following commands to set up the keepalived service
systemctl preset keepalived.service
systemctl start keepalived.service
after that I was all good to go.
Keepalived outputs to syslog. I found it very useful to check those logs to help me debug a few of these issues that I had. You can view those logs via the following command:
sudo cat /var/log/syslog
this will also include other processes as well so just keep an eye out for Keepalived or Keepalived_vrrp
Well I hope this is useful to anyone else out there in the future!