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Hibernate Tomcat JNDI DataSource Example Tutorial

Published on August 3, 2022
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By Pankaj
Developer and author at DigitalOcean.
Hibernate Tomcat JNDI DataSource Example Tutorial

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Welcome to the Hibernate Tomcat JNDI DataSource example tutorial. We have already seen how to use Hibernate ORM tool in standalone java application, today we will learn how to use Hibernate with DataSource in Tomcat servlet container. Using hibernate in web application is very easy, all we need is to configure DataSource properties in hibernate configuration file. First of all we need to setup test database and JNDI DataSource in tomcat container.

Hibernate DataSource JNDI Example Database Setup

I am using MySQL for my example, below script is executed to create a simple table and insert some values into it. employee.sql

CREATE TABLE `Employee` (
  `id` int(11) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `role` varchar(20) DEFAULT NULL,
  `insert_time` datetime DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=26 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

INSERT INTO `Employee` (`id`, `name`, `role`, `insert_time`)
VALUES
	(3, 'Pankaj', 'CEO', now());
INSERT INTO `Employee` (`id`, `name`, `role`, `insert_time`)
VALUES
	(14, 'David', 'Developer', now());

The Database schema name is TestDB.

Tomcat JNDI DataSource Configuration

For configuring tomcat container to initialize DataSource, we need to make some changes in tomcat server.xml and context.xml files. server.xml

<Resource name="jdbc/MyLocalDB" 
      global="jdbc/MyLocalDB" 
      auth="Container" 
      type="javax.sql.DataSource" 
      driverClassName="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" 
      url="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/TestDB" 
      username="pankaj" 
      password="pankaj123" 
      
      maxActive="100" 
      maxIdle="20" 
      minIdle="5" 
      maxWait="10000"/>

Add above resource in the server.xml GlobalNamingResources element. context.xml

<ResourceLink name="jdbc/MyLocalDB"
              global="jdbc/MyLocalDB"
              auth="Container"
              type="javax.sql.DataSource" />

Add above ResourceLink in the context.xml file, it’s required so that applications can access the JNDI resource with name jdbc/MyLocalDB. Just restart the server, you should not see any errors in the tomcat server logs. If there are any wrong configurations, such as password is wrong, you will get the corresponding exception in the server log. You also need to make sure that MySQL driver jar file is inside the tomcat lib directory, otherwise tomcat will not be able to create database connection and you will get ClassNotFoundException in logs. Now our database and tomcat server JNDI setup is ready, let’s move to create our web application using hibernate.

Hibernate DataSource Example Dynamic Web Project

Create a dynamic web project in Eclipse and then configure it as Maven project. Our final project structure will look like below image. Hibernate DataSource, hibernate jndi, hibernate datasource configuration, tomcat hibernate Note that I am using Tomcat-7 for my project deployment and I have added it to the build path, so that we don’t need to separately add Servlet API dependencies in our project. Tomcat-7 supports Servlet 3 specs and we will be using annotations to create our servlets. If you are not familiar with Servlet 3 annotations, you should check out Servlet Tutorial for Beginners. Let’s look into each of the components one by one.

Hibernate Maven Dependencies

Our final pom.xml file looks like below.

<project xmlns="https://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="https://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
	<groupId>HibernateDataSource</groupId>
	<artifactId>HibernateDataSource</artifactId>
	<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
	<packaging>war</packaging>
	
	<dependencies>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
			<artifactId>hibernate-core</artifactId>
			<version>4.3.5.Final</version>
		</dependency>
		<dependency>
			<groupId>mysql</groupId>
			<artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
			<version>5.0.5</version>
			<scope>provided</scope>
		</dependency>
	</dependencies>
	<build>
		<plugins>
			<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>2.3</version>
				<configuration>
					<warSourceDirectory>WebContent</warSourceDirectory>
					<failOnMissingWebXml>false</failOnMissingWebXml>
				</configuration>
			</plugin>
			<plugin>
				<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
				<version>3.1</version>
				<configuration>
					<source>1.7</source>
					<target>1.7</target>
				</configuration>
			</plugin>
		</plugins>
		<finalName>${project.artifactId}</finalName>
	</build>
</project>

I am using Hibernate latest version 4.3.5.Final, hibernate-core dependency is added for Hibernate. mysql-connector-java dependency is added because we are using MySQL database, although scope is provided because it’s already part of the tomcat container libraries. Even if we don’t add MySQL driver dependencies, our project will compile and run fine. However it’s better to include it so that if someone will look into the project dependencies, it will be clear that we are using MySQL database.

Hibernate DataSource Configuration

Our hibernate configuration file with datasource looks like below. hibernate.cfg.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-configuration PUBLIC
		"-//Hibernate/Hibernate Configuration DTD 3.0//EN"
		"https://hibernate.org/dtd/hibernate-configuration-3.0.dtd">
<hibernate-configuration>
    <session-factory>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.driver_class">com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</property>
        <property name="hibernate.dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</property>
        <property name="hibernate.connection.datasource">java:comp/env/jdbc/MyLocalDB</property>
        <property name="hibernate.current_session_context_class">thread</property>
        
        <!-- Mapping with model class containing annotations -->
	<mapping class="com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.model.Employee"/>
    </session-factory>
</hibernate-configuration>

hibernate.connection.datasource property is used to provide the DataSource name that will be used by Hibernate for database operations.

Hibernate DataSource Example Model Class

As you can see in hibernate configuration file, we are using annotations in our model class Employee. Our model bean looks like below. Employee.java

package com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.model;

import java.util.Date;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.GenerationType;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.Table;
import javax.persistence.UniqueConstraint;

@Entity
@Table(name="Employee", 
	   uniqueConstraints={@UniqueConstraint(columnNames={"ID"})})
public class Employee {

	@Id
	@GeneratedValue(strategy=GenerationType.IDENTITY)
	@Column(name="ID", nullable=false, unique=true, length=11)
	private int id;
	
	@Column(name="NAME", length=20, nullable=true)
	private String name;
	
	@Column(name="ROLE", length=20, nullable=true)
	private String role;
	
	@Column(name="insert_time", nullable=true)
	private Date insertTime;
	
	public int getId() {
		return id;
	}
	public void setId(int id) {
		this.id = id;
	}
	public String getName() {
		return name;
	}
	public void setName(String name) {
		this.name = name;
	}
	public String getRole() {
		return role;
	}
	public void setRole(String role) {
		this.role = role;
	}
	public Date getInsertTime() {
		return insertTime;
	}
	public void setInsertTime(Date insertTime) {
		this.insertTime = insertTime;
	}
}

Model bean is same as we used in Hibernate Beginners Tutorial, you should check it out if you have any confusion related to any of the annotations used.

Hibernate DataSource Tomcat JNDI Servlet Listener

Since we have to initialize Hibernate SessionFactory because we can use it in the application and also when web application is destroyed, we need to destroy SessionFactory. So the best place to do this in a ServletContextListener implementation. HibernateSessionFactoryListener.java

package com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener;

import javax.servlet.ServletContextEvent;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebListener;

import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.boot.registry.StandardServiceRegistryBuilder;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;
import org.hibernate.service.ServiceRegistry;
import org.jboss.logging.Logger;

@WebListener
public class HibernateSessionFactoryListener implements ServletContextListener {

	public final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(HibernateSessionFactoryListener.class);
	
    public void contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent servletContextEvent) {
    	SessionFactory sessionFactory = (SessionFactory) servletContextEvent.getServletContext().getAttribute("SessionFactory");
    	if(sessionFactory != null && !sessionFactory.isClosed()){
    		logger.info("Closing sessionFactory");
    		sessionFactory.close();
    	}
    	logger.info("Released Hibernate sessionFactory resource");
    }

    public void contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent servletContextEvent) {
    	Configuration configuration = new Configuration();
    	configuration.configure("hibernate.cfg.xml");
    	logger.info("Hibernate Configuration created successfully");
    	
    	ServiceRegistry serviceRegistry = new StandardServiceRegistryBuilder().applySettings(configuration.getProperties()).build();
    	logger.info("ServiceRegistry created successfully");
    	SessionFactory sessionFactory = configuration
				.buildSessionFactory(serviceRegistry);
    	logger.info("SessionFactory created successfully");
    	
    	servletContextEvent.getServletContext().setAttribute("SessionFactory", sessionFactory);
    	logger.info("Hibernate SessionFactory Configured successfully");
    }
	
}

If you are not familiar with servlet listeners, please read Servlet Listener Tutorial.

Hibernate Tomcat JNDI Example Servlet Implementation

Let’s write a simple servlet where we will pass employee id as request parameter and it will print out the employee information from database, obviously we will use Hibernate to query the database and get employee information. GetEmployeeByID.java

package com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.PrintWriter;

import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.annotation.WebServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.jboss.logging.Logger;

import com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.model.Employee;

@WebServlet("/GetEmployeeByID")
public class GetEmployeeByID extends HttpServlet {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
	
	public final Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(GetEmployeeByID.class);
       
	protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
		int empId = Integer.parseInt(request.getParameter("empId"));
		logger.info("Request Param empId="+empId);
		
		SessionFactory sessionFactory = (SessionFactory) request.getServletContext().getAttribute("SessionFactory");
		
		Session session = sessionFactory.getCurrentSession();
		Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();
		Employee emp = (Employee) session.get(Employee.class, empId);
		tx.commit();
		PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
        response.setContentType("text/html");
        if(emp != null){
        out.print("<html><body><h2>Employee Details</h2>");
        out.print("<table border=\"1\" cellspacing=10 cellpadding=5>");
        out.print("<th>Employee ID</th>");
        out.print("<th>Employee Name</th>");
        out.print("<th>Employee Role</th>");
        
            out.print("<tr>");
            out.print("<td>" + empId + "</td>");
            out.print("<td>" + emp.getName() + "</td>");
            out.print("<td>" + emp.getRole() + "</td>");
            out.print("</tr>");
        out.print("</table></body><br/>");
        
        out.print("</html>");
        }else{
        	out.print("<html><body><h2>No Employee Found with ID="+empId+"</h2></body></html>");
        }
	}

}

It’s a very simple servlet class, I am using @WebServlet annotation to provide the URI pattern for it.

Testing Hibernate DataSource Tomcat JNDI Example Application

Our application is ready now, just export as war file and deploy it in the tomcat container. Below are some of the screenshots when we invoke our application servlet. hibernate datasource, hibernate jndi, tomcat jndi, jndi datasource hibernate, hibernate datasource, jndi datasource, tomcat jndi datasource Notice that I am passing empId request parameter in the request URL query string. You will also see our application generated logs in the server logs.

May 08, 2014 8:14:16 PM org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration configure
INFO: HHH000043: Configuring from resource: hibernate.cfg.xml
May 08, 2014 8:14:16 PM org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration getConfigurationInputStream
INFO: HHH000040: Configuration resource: hibernate.cfg.xml
May 08, 2014 8:14:16 PM org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration doConfigure
INFO: HHH000041: Configured SessionFactory: null
May 08, 2014 8:14:16 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener.HibernateSessionFactoryListener contextInitialized
INFO: Hibernate Configuration created successfully
May 08, 2014 8:14:16 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener.HibernateSessionFactoryListener contextInitialized
INFO: ServiceRegistry created successfully
May 08, 2014 8:14:16 PM org.hibernate.dialect.Dialect <init>
INFO: HHH000400: Using dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect
May 08, 2014 8:14:17 PM org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.internal.LobCreatorBuilder useContextualLobCreation
INFO: HHH000423: Disabling contextual LOB creation as JDBC driver reported JDBC version [3] less than 4
May 08, 2014 8:14:17 PM org.hibernate.engine.transaction.internal.TransactionFactoryInitiator initiateService
INFO: HHH000399: Using default transaction strategy (direct JDBC transactions)
May 08, 2014 8:14:17 PM org.hibernate.hql.internal.ast.ASTQueryTranslatorFactory <init>
INFO: HHH000397: Using ASTQueryTranslatorFactory
May 08, 2014 8:14:17 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener.HibernateSessionFactoryListener contextInitialized
INFO: SessionFactory created successfully
May 08, 2014 8:14:17 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener.HibernateSessionFactoryListener contextInitialized
INFO: Hibernate SessionFactory Configured successfully
May 08, 2014 8:14:32 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.GetEmployeeByID doGet
INFO: Request Param empId=3
May 08, 2014 8:15:22 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.GetEmployeeByID doGet
INFO: Request Param empId=3

If you will undeploy the application or stop the server, you will see server logs for destroying the SessionFactory.

May 08, 2014 11:31:16 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener.HibernateSessionFactoryListener contextDestroyed
INFO: Closing sessionFactory
May 08, 2014 11:31:16 PM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.listener.HibernateSessionFactoryListener contextDestroyed
INFO: Released Hibernate sessionFactory resource

That’s all for Hibernate DataSource example for tomcat container, I hope it’s easy to understand and implement. Download the sample project from below link and play around with it to learn more.

Download Hibernate DataSource Project

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About the authors
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Pankaj

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Developer and author at DigitalOcean.

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Hi For all who have met with error - org.hibernate.UnknownEntityTypeException: Unable to locate persister. I encountered this error because I used hibernate 5.+. One line in contextInitialized solved the problem : configuration.addAnnotatedClass(Employee.class);

- Maciek

    Hi Pankaj, I’ve been following your tutorials from long time. Well, here in this tutorial I’m getting NPE at line Session session = sessionFactory.getCurrentSession(); in GetCustomerByID class. I’m not able to figure out what’s the root cause. Here is the logs: Log: ------ Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener init INFO: The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: /usr/java/packages/lib/amd64:/usr/lib64:/lib64:/lib:/usr/lib Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.tomcat.util.digester.SetPropertiesRule begin WARNING: [SetPropertiesRule]{Server/Service/Engine/Host/Context} Setting property ‘source’ to ‘org.eclipse.jst.j2ee.server:HibernateConnectionsusingDataSourceAndJNDITest’ did not find a matching property. Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [“http-bio-8080”] Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol init INFO: Initializing ProtocolHandler [“ajp-bio-8009”] Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina load INFO: Initialization processed in 986 ms Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService startInternal INFO: Starting service Catalina Feb 07, 2017 11:20:29 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine startInternal INFO: Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/7.0.54 Feb 07, 2017 11:20:30 AM org.apache.catalina.loader.WebappClassLoader validateJarFile INFO: validateJarFile(/home/dhiraj/MyWorkSpace/workspace/.metadata/.plugins/org.eclipse.wst.server.core/tmp0/wtpwebapps/HibernateConnectionsusingDataSourceAndJNDITest/WEB-INF/lib/javax.servlet-api-3.0.1.jar) - jar not loaded. See Servlet Spec 3.0, section 10.7.2. Offending class: javax/servlet/Servlet.class Feb 07, 2017 11:20:30 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol start INFO: Starting ProtocolHandler [“http-bio-8080”] Feb 07, 2017 11:20:30 AM org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol start INFO: Starting ProtocolHandler [“ajp-bio-8009”] Feb 07, 2017 11:20:30 AM org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina start INFO: Server startup in 1348 ms Feb 07, 2017 11:20:36 AM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.GetEmployeeByID doGet INFO: Request Param empId=3 Feb 07, 2017 11:20:36 AM com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.GetEmployeeByID doGet INFO: Here is the session factory object: null Feb 07, 2017 11:20:36 AM org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve invoke SEVERE: Servlet.service() for servlet [com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.GetEmployeeByID] in context with path [/HibernateConnectionsusingDataSourceAndJNDITest] threw exception java.lang.NullPointerException at com.journaldev.servlet.hibernate.GetEmployeeByID.doGet(GetEmployeeByID.java:35) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:620) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:727) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:303) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:241) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:208) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:220) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:122) at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:501) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:171) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:102) at org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve.invoke(AccessLogValve.java:950) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:116) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:408) at org.apache.coyote.http11.AbstractHttp11Processor.process(AbstractHttp11Processor.java:1040) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$AbstractConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:607) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.JIoEndpoint$SocketProcessor.run(JIoEndpoint.java:316) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745)

    - Dhiraj Singh

      You forgot to do configuration.addAnnotatedClass(Employee.class); at the contextInitialized method. Without it we have got exception: Exception in thread “main” org.hibernate.UnknownEntityTypeException: Unable to locate persister: servlet.hibernate.Employee

      - Oleg

        Hi Pankaj, https://www.journaldev.com/3531/spring-mvc-hibernate-mysql-integration-crud-example-tutorial now i want to use jndi datasource for the above refered link. the below is the hibernate config file data. i am confusing how do i change the below configuration if i want to use jndi datasource. com.journaldev.spring.model.Person org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect true each dao bean id is refering to session factory. could you please suggest me how do i change this config file.

        - srini

          Thank you very much for your tutorials - they are very clearly written. This is the first one I’ve had trouble with: - I couldn’t get the java classes to compile - Eclipse could not import javax.servlet classes until I configured the build path and added the apache tomcat 7 library. This made the javac errors go away. - Then I exported the .war file … but you don’t tell us where to put it. By googling around, I read that it should to into the apache-tomcat-7.0/webapps directory, and that by stopping/restarting tomcat, it would uncompress this into a folder. - However, when I stopped/restarted tomcat *within* Eclipse, nothing happened. - So I stopped tomcat in Eclipse and then started it from the command line: bin/startup.sh - and this opened the folder into the webapps/ directory. - Then I loaded a browser but I got a connection error - incorrect database user+password. I had set these in the tomcat conf/server.xml file as you suggested: <Resource name=“jdbc/MyLocalDB” global=“jdbc/MyLocalDB” username = “…” - The fix was to edit the hibernate.cfg.xml file inside of webapps/HibernateDataSource/WEB-INF/classes and add in: root passwd And now it works(!) But … I don’t know if I am using Hibernate inside of Tomcat the way you designed (e.g., I’m not sure where exactly it is getting the jdbc mysql driver from). Can you suggest what is right/wrong here ? Thanks! -Mike

          - Mike

            Hi, thank you very much for this great tutorial! I’ve a couple of questions: 1) Is this setup a valid solution for enterprise web app with big number of users? 2) Is this using connection pooling? 3) You’re declaring the jdbc/MyLocalDB resource at server level. Can this be done at web app level (dynamic web project)? thanks!

            - Luca

              Hi Pankaj, I did not understand why have you specified driver class name in hibernate.cfg.xml file? because you already specified driver class name in in Context.xml file for tomcat.

              - Farhan

                Hello! Good afternoon! First of all, sorry for my english! So, My name is Josemar and I’m trying to make a project using Hibernate 4.3.5 / JPA 2.0 plus JNDI DataSource! Well I have already configured persistence.xml and server.xml / context.xml, but I don’t know how I can get EntityManagerFactory from jndi. When I try this: “Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory(“my_UP”)” it doesn’t work. Do you have some example about it? Thank you!

                - Josemar Flausino