While we believe that this content benefits our community, we have not yet thoroughly reviewed it. If you have any suggestions for improvements, please let us know by clicking the “report an issue“ button at the bottom of the tutorial.
Python io module allows us to manage the file-related input and output operations. The advantage of using the IO module is that the classes and functions available allows us to extend the functionality to enable writing to the Unicode data.
There are many ways in which we can use the io module to perform stream and buffer operations in Python. We will demonstrate a lot of examples here to prove the point. Let’s get started.
Just like what we do with variables, data can be kept as bytes in an in-memory buffer when we use the io module’s Byte IO operations. Here is a sample program to demonstrate this:
import io stream_str = io.BytesIO(b"JournalDev Python: \x00\x01") print(stream_str.getvalue())
Let’s see the output for this program: The
getvalue() function just takes the value from the Buffer as a String.
We can even use
StringIO as well which is extremely similar in use to
BytesIO. Here is a sample program:
import io data = io.StringIO() data.write('JournalDev: ') print('Python.', file=data) print(data.getvalue()) data.close()
Let’s see the output for this program: Notice that we even closed the buffer after we’re done with the buffer. This helps save buffer memory as they store data in-memory. Also, we used the print method with an optional argument to specify an IO stream of the variable, which is perfectly compatible with a print statement.
Once we write some data to the StringIO buffer, we can read it as well. Let’s look at a code snippet:
import io input = io.StringIO('This goes into the read buffer.') print(input.read())
Let’s see the output for this program:
It is also possible to read a file and stream it over a network as Bytes. The io module can be used to convert a media file like an image to be converted to bytes. Here is a sample program:
import io file = io.open("whale.png", "rb", buffering = 0) print(file.read())
Let’s see the output for this program: For this program to run, we had a whale.png image present in our current directory.
io.open() function is a much preferred way to perform I/O operations as it is made as a high-level interface to peform file I/O. It wraps the OS-level file descriptor in an object which we can use to access the file in a Pythonic way. The
os.open() function takes care of the lower-level POSIX syscall. It takes input POSIX based arguments and returns a file descriptor which represents the opened file. It does not return a file object; the returned value will not have
write() functions. Overall,
io.open() function is just a wrapper over
os.open() function. The
os.open() function just also sets default config like flags and mode too while io.open() doesn’t to it and depends on the values passed to it.
In this lesson, we studied simple operations of python IO module and how we can manage the Unicode characters with BytesIO as well. However, if you are looking for complete file operations such as delete and copy a file then read python read file. Reference: API Doc
Thanks for learning with the DigitalOcean Community. Check out our offerings for compute, storage, networking, and managed databases.
Click below to sign up and get $200 of credit to try our products over 60 days!