// Tutorial //

Spring Annotations

Published on August 3, 2022
Default avatar
By Pankaj
Developer and author at DigitalOcean.
Spring Annotations

While we believe that this content benefits our community, we have not yet thoroughly reviewed it. If you have any suggestions for improvements, please let us know by clicking the “report an issue“ button at the bottom of the tutorial.

Spring Annotations allows us to configure dependencies and implement dependency injection through java programs.

Spring Annotations

  • Spring framework implements and promotes the principle of control inversion (IOC) or dependency injection (DI) and is in fact an IOC container.
  • Traditionally, Spring allows a developer to manage bean dependencies by using XML-based configuration.
  • There is an alternative way to define beans and their dependencies. This method is a Java-based configuration.
  • Unlike the XML approach, Java-based configuration allows you to manage bean components programmatically. That’s why Spring annotations were introduced.

In this article we will explore most commonly used Spring Annotations and also look at some example program.

Spring Annotations List

Some of the spring core framework annotations are:

  1. @Configuration: Used to indicate that a class declares one or more @Bean methods. These classes are processed by the Spring container to generate bean definitions and service requests for those beans at runtime.

  2. @Bean: Indicates that a method produces a bean to be managed by the Spring container. This is one of the most used and important spring annotation. @Bean annotation also can be used with parameters like name, initMethod and destroyMethod.

    • name – allows you give name for bean
    • initMethod – allows you to choose method which will be invoked on context register
    • destroyMethod – allows you to choose method which will be invoked on context shutdown

    For example:

    public class AppConfig {
        @Bean(name = "comp", initMethod = "turnOn", destroyMethod = "turnOff")
        Computer computer(){
            return new Computer();
    public class Computer {
        public void turnOn(){
            System.out.println("Load operating system");
        public void turnOff(){
            System.out.println("Close all programs");
  3. @PreDestroy and @PostConstruct are alternative way for bean initMethod and destroyMethod. It can be used when the bean class is defined by us. For example;

     public class Computer {
        public void turnOn(){
            System.out.println("Load operating system");
        public void turnOff(){
            System.out.println("Close all programs");
  4. @ComponentScan: Configures component scanning directives for use with @Configuration classes. Here we can specify the base packages to scan for spring components.

  5. @Component: Indicates that an annotated class is a “component”. Such classes are considered as candidates for auto-detection when using annotation-based configuration and classpath scanning.

  6. @PropertySource: provides a simple declarative mechanism for adding a property source to Spring’s Environment. There is a similar annotation for adding an array of property source files i.e @PropertySources.

  7. @Service: Indicates that an annotated class is a “Service”. This annotation serves as a specialization of @Component, allowing for implementation classes to be autodetected through classpath scanning.

  8. @Repository: Indicates that an annotated class is a “Repository”. This annotation serves as a specialization of @Component and advisable to use with DAO classes.

  9. @Autowired: Spring @Autowired annotation is used for automatic injection of beans. Spring @Qualifier annotation is used in conjunction with Autowired to avoid confusion when we have two of more bean configured for same type.

Spring MVC Annotations

Some of the important Spring MVC annotations are:

  1. @Controller
  2. @RequestMapping
  3. @PathVariable
  4. @RequestParam
  5. @ModelAttribute
  6. @RequestBody and @ResponseBody
  7. @RequestHeader and @ResponseHeader

You can learn more about them at Spring MVC Tutorial.

Spring Transaction Management Annotations

@Transactional is the spring declarative transaction management annotation, read more at Spring MVC Hibernate.

Spring Security Annotations

@EnableWebSecurity is used with @Configuration class to have the Spring Security configuration defined, read more at Spring Security Example.

Spring Boot Annotations

  1. @SpringBootApplication
  2. @EnableAutoConfiguration

Read more at Spring Boot Example.

Spring Annotations Example

Let’s look at a simple example where we will use Spring annotations in our application. Below image illustrates my Spring Annotations Example project. spring annotations

Spring Framework Dependencies

I have created the maven project and added Spring Core Framework dependencies.

<project xmlns="https://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="https://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="https://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
	<name>Spring Annotations</name>





This will pull up all the spring core jars for our project.

Component Classes

Next step is to create component classes. Here I am imitating multiple database components, one for MySQL and another for Oracle.

package com.journaldev.drivers;

public interface DataBaseDriver {
    public String getInfo();

DataBaseDriver is the base interface that we will implement.

package com.journaldev.drivers;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.PropertySource;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

public class MySqlDriver implements DataBaseDriver {

    private String databaseName;
    private String disableStatementPooling;

    public String getInfo() {
        return "[ Driver: mySql" +
                ", databaseName: " + databaseName +
                ", disableStatementPooling: " + disableStatementPooling +
                " ]";

Notice the use of @Component annotation to indicate spring framework to treat this class as a Component. We are also using @PropertySource and @Value annotations, Spring will use these at runtime to inject and set these variable values from specified property file. Below is the properties declared in mysqldatabase.properties file.

package com.journaldev.drivers;

public class OracleDriver implements DataBaseDriver {

    protected String url;
    protected String user;
    protected String password;
    protected String driver;
    protected Integer port;

    public String getUrl() {
        return url;

    public String getUser() {
        return user;

    public void setUser(String user) {
        this.user = user;

    public String getPassword() {
        return password;

    public void setPassword(String password) {
        this.password = password;

    public String getDriver() {
        return driver;

    public void setDriver(String driver) {
        this.driver = driver;

    public Integer getPort() {
        return port;

    public void setPort(Integer port) {
        this.port = port;

    public void setUrl(String url) {
        this.url = url;

    public String getInfo() {
        return "[ Driver: Oracle" +
                ", url: " + url +
                ", port; " + port +
                ", user: " + user +
                ", password: " + password  +
                ", driver: " + driver +
                " ] ";

OracleDriver is a simple bean, we will use service class to inject properties to this bean.

Spring Service Class

package com.journaldev.service;

import com.journaldev.drivers.DataBaseDriver;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Qualifier;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

public class UserService {

    private DataBaseDriver dataBaseDriver;

    public String getDriverInfo(){
        return dataBaseDriver.getInfo();

Here we are using @Service annotation to indicate Spring framework to treat this as a Service class. Then we are using @Autowired and @Qualifier("oracleDriver") annotations to tell spring framework to inject bean named oracleDriver to class property dataBaseDriver. Note that we haven’t yet created this spring bean.

Spring Beans

Final step is to create our spring beans and configuration classes to glue everything together.

package com.journaldev.config;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.PropertySource;
import org.springframework.core.env.Environment;

import com.journaldev.drivers.DataBaseDriver;
import com.journaldev.drivers.MySqlDriver;
import com.journaldev.drivers.OracleDriver;

public class AppConfig {

        Environment environment;
	DataBaseDriver oracleDriver() {
        OracleDriver oracleDriver = new OracleDriver();

        return oracleDriver;


	DataBaseDriver mysqlDriver() {
		return new MySqlDriver();

Notice the bean definition for oracleDriver. In this method, we are reading properties from oracledatabase.properties file that is being set to environment variable by Spring framework. Here is the properties defined in oracledatabase.properties file.


Our spring annotations example project is ready to test. As a summary, we performed following steps:

  1. Created maven project and added required spring dependencies.
  2. Created component classes and inject properties from a resource file into it’s variable.
  3. If we have a third party component, we can use Service class to inject dependencies into it. Just like we did for OracleDriver through UserService class.
  4. Finally, we created Configuration class to define spring beans and set the base package to scan for spring component classes and configure them.

Spring Annotations Example Testing

Here is our main class to test our Spring annotations example project.

package com.journaldev;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.AnnotationConfigApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.support.AbstractApplicationContext;

import com.journaldev.config.AppConfig;
import com.journaldev.drivers.DataBaseDriver;
import com.journaldev.service.UserService;

public class Main {
	public static void main(String[] args) {
	AbstractApplicationContext appContext = new AnnotationConfigApplicationContext(AppConfig.class);

	DataBaseDriver oracle = appContext.getBean("oracleDriver", DataBaseDriver.class);
	DataBaseDriver mysql = appContext.getBean("mysqlDriver", DataBaseDriver.class);
        System.out.println("Oracle driver info:");
        System.out.println("MySQL driver info:");

        System.out.println("UserService Information");
	UserService userService = appContext.getBean(UserService.class);


Below image shows the output produced. Notice that we haven’t configured any logging framework, so all the spring framework logging is getting printed into console in red color. spring annotations example That’s all for a brief introduction for spring annotations. I have listed here most of the important annotations, but there are a lot more of them for specific tasks. You can download my spring annotations example project from below link.

Download Download Spring Annotations Example Project

Reference: API Doc

If you’ve enjoyed this tutorial and our broader community, consider checking out our DigitalOcean products which can also help you achieve your development goals.

Learn more here

About the authors
Default avatar


Developer and author at DigitalOcean.

Still looking for an answer?

Was this helpful?

great job dear pankaj


    Very simple and interesting! Good job

    - Joseph

      Hi Pankaj. A question. In this example, only one instance of OracleDriver is created, while 2 instances of MySqlDriver are created, because (I guess) of the @Component annotation present in the class MySqlDriver. So, I expect that putting this annotation also in the class OracleDriver, I also get 2 instances of OracleDriver created, but that’s not happening. Can you please explain why? Thanks a lot in advance!

      - Valentino

        Simple and superb, Very good job Pankaj, really appreciated.

        - Praveen Kumar