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How to Install and Configure Ingress Controller using Ambassador

Published on February 1, 2024
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By Cristian Marius Tiutiu and Bikram Gupta

How to Install and Configure Ingress Controller using Ambassador

Introduction

Navigating container orchestration often requires establishing routes for external traffic to get to applications within a Kubernetes cluster. One fundamental component that addresses this challenge is the Ingress Controller. An Ingress Controller acts as the gateway between external requests and apps residing inside, efficiently managing external access to services running on the cluster.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to use the Ambassador Edge Stack ingress (AES for short). Then, you’re going to discover how to have TLS certificates automatically deployed and configured for your hosts, and route traffic to your backend applications.

Table of contents

Prerequisites

To complete this tutorial, you will need:

  • A Git client to clone the Starter Kit repository.
  • Helm for managing Ambassador Edge Stack releases and upgrades.
  • Doctl for DigitalOcean API interaction.
  • Kubectl for Kubernetes interaction.
  • Curl for testing the sample backend applications.
  • Ensure that doctl and kubectl point to your Kubernetes cluster. Refer to Authenticate DigitalOcean API and Creating the DOKS Cluster from the DOKS setup tutorial.

Ambassador Edge Stack 2.x introduces some changes that aren’t backward-compatible with 1.x. If you already have an existing installation that uses 1.x and you would like to upgrade to version 2.x, please follow this Upgrade to newer version guide.

Step 1 - Installing the Ambassador Edge Stack

In this step, you will deploy the Ambassador Edge Stack to your DOKS cluster via Helm.

First, clone the Starter Kit repository and change the directory to your local copy.

git clone https://github.com/digitalocean/Kubernetes-Starter-Kit-Developers.git

cd Kubernetes-Starter-Kit-Developers

Next, add the Helm repo and list the available charts:

helm repo add datawire https://app.getambassador.io

helm repo update datawire

helm search repo datawire

The output looks similar to the following:

NAME                            CHART VERSION   APP VERSION     DESCRIPTION
datawire/ambassador             6.9.4           1.14.3          A Helm chart for Datawire Ambassador
datawire/ambassador-operator    0.3.0           v1.3.0          A Helm chart for Kubernetes
datawire/edge-stack             7.3.2           2.2.2           A Helm chart for Ambassador Edge Stack
datawire/emissary-ingress       7.3.2           2.2.2           A Helm chart for Emissary Ingress
datawire/telepresence           2.6.5           2.6.5           A chart for deploying the server-side component...

The chart of interest is datawire/edge-stack, which will install Ambassador Edge Stack on the cluster. Please visit the ambassador-edge-stack page for more details about this chart.

Before installing Ambassador Edge Stack 2.x itself, it is required to configure your Kubernetes cluster to support the getambassador.io/v3alpha1 and getambassador.io/v2 configuration resources.

kubectl apply -f https://app.getambassador.io/yaml/edge-stack/2.3.0/aes-crds.yaml

Ambassador Edge Stack 2.x includes a Deployment in the emissary-system namespace called edge-stack-apiext. This is the API server extension that supports converting Ambassador Edge Stack CRDs between getambassador.io/v3alpha1 and getambassador.io/v2. This Deployment needs to be running at all times.

Open and inspect the 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador-values-v7.3.2.yaml file provided in the Starter Kit repository using an editor of your choice (preferably with YAML lint support).

code 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador-values-v7.3.2.yaml

If you want to re-use the existing Load Balancer to preserve your DNS settings and other Load Balancer configurations, make sure to modify the ambassador-values-v7.3.2.yaml file to add the annotation for your existing Load Balancer. Similarly, you can enable Proxy Protocol as part of the modules section in the ambassador-values-v7.3.2.yaml file. Please refer to the How To Migrate Load Balancers guide for more details.

Finally, install Ambassador Edge Stack using Helm (a dedicated ambassador namespace will be created as well):

HELM_CHART_VERSION="7.3.2"

helm install edge-stack datawire/edge-stack --version "$HELM_CHART_VERSION" \
    --namespace ambassador \
    --create-namespace \
    -f "03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador-values-v${HELM_CHART_VERSION}.yaml"

In this case, Ambassador Helm Chart version 7.3.2 was picked that maps to the 2.2.2 release of Ambassador Edge Stack (see the output from Step 2.). It’s a good practice in general to lock on a specific version. This helps to have predictable results and allows versioning control via Git.

You can verify Ambassador deployment status via:

helm ls -n ambassador

The output looks similar to (notice that the STATUS column value is deployed):

NAME         NAMESPACE   REVISION  UPDATED                                STATUS      CHART               APP VERSION
edge-stack   ambassador  1         2022-02-03 09:56:55.80197 +0200 EET   deployed    edge-stack-7.3.2   2.2.2

Next, check Kubernetes resources created for the ambassador namespace. Notice the deployment and replicaset resources which should be healthy and the LoadBalancer resource having an external IP assigned.

kubectl get all -n ambassador

The output looks similar to:

NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/edge-stack-5bdc64f9f6-hhwdc         1/1     Running   0          6m14s
pod/edge-stack-5bdc64f9f6-xz9jl         1/1     Running   0          6m14s
pod/edge-stack-agent-bcdd8ccc8-m9blv    1/1     Running   0          6m14s
pod/edge-stack-redis-64b7c668b9-69c5p   1/1     Running   0          6m14s

NAME                       TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP       PORT(S)                      AGE
service/edge-stack         LoadBalancer   10.245.189.240   68.183.252.190    80:30323/TCP,443:30510/TCP   6m14s
service/edge-stack-admin   ClusterIP      10.245.170.181   <none>            8877/TCP,8005/TCP            6m14s
service/edge-stack-redis   ClusterIP      10.245.205.49    <none>            6379/TCP                     6m14s

NAME                               READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.apps/edge-stack         2/2     2            2           6m14s
deployment.apps/edge-stack-agent   1/1     1            1           6m14s
deployment.apps/edge-stack-redis   1/1     1            1           6m14s

NAME                                          DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
replicaset.apps/edge-stack-5bdc64f9f6         2         2         2       6m14s
replicaset.apps/edge-stack-agent-bcdd8ccc8    1         1         1       6m14s
replicaset.apps/edge-stack-redis-64b7c668b9   1         1         1       6m14s

Finally, list all load balancer resources from your DigitalOcean account to print the IP, ID, Name, and Status:

doctl compute load-balancer list --format IP,ID,Name,Status

The output looks similar to the following snippet. It should contain the new load balancer resource created for Ambassador Edge Stack in a healthy state.

IP                 ID                                      Name                                Status
68.183.252.190     0471a318-a98d-49e3-aaa1-ccd855831447    acdc25c5cfd404fd68cd103be95af8ae    active

In the next step, you will learn how to create the Listener CRDs that tell the Ambassador Edge Stack what port to listen on.

Step 2 - Defining the Listener for Ambassador Edge Stack

The Listener CRD defines where and how Ambassador Edge Stack should listen for requests from the network (e.g. DO Load Balancer), and which Host definitions should be used to process those requests.

A typical Listener configuration looks like this:

apiVersion: getambassador.io/v3alpha1
kind: Listener
metadata:
  name: http-listener
spec:
  port: 8080
  protocol: HTTPS
  securityModel: XFP
  hostBinding:
    namespace:
      from: ALL

In the above configuration:

  • port: The network port on which Ambassador Edge Stack should listen.
  • protocol: The protocol Type on which Ambassador Edge Stack will use.
  • protocolStack: Allows configuring exactly which protocols will be layered together.
  • securityModel: Defines how the Listener will decide whether a request is secure or insecure.
  • hostBinding: Mechanism for determining which Hosts will be associated with this Listener.

Ambassador Edge Stack offers multiple configurations for protocolStack and our recommendation is to secure the XFP flag for all the connections. If the X-Forwarded-Proto header is present in the requests, the AES will automatically redirect all requests from HTTP over to HTTPS for added security. For more details, please visit the AES Listener CRD official documentation.

First, change the directory to where you cloned the Starter Kit repository.

cd Kubernetes-Starter-Kit-Developers

Next, apply the manifest to create the Listener:

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/ambassador_listener.yaml

Inspect the AES Listener:

kubectl describe listener.getambassador.io

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice the creation of host bindings through the Spec.Host Binding field:

Name:         http-listener
API Version:  getambassador.io/v3alpha1
Kind:         Listener
...
Spec:
  Host Binding:
    Namespace:
      From:        ALL
  Port:            8080
  Protocol:        HTTPS
  Security Model:  XFP
  Stats Prefix:    http-listener
  Events:            <none>

Name:         https-listener
API Version:  getambassador.io/v3alpha1
Kind:         Listener
...
Spec:
  Host Binding:
    Namespace:
      From:        ALL
  Port:            8443
  Protocol:        HTTPS
  Security Model:  XFP
  Stats Prefix:    https-listener
Events:            <none>

In the next step, you will learn how to create the Host CRDs that tell Ambassador how to expose backend hosts (services) to the outside world.

Step 3 - Defining the Hosts for Ambassador Edge Stack

The Host CRD handles TLS termination automatically by using HTTP-01 ACME challenge to request TLS certificates from a well-known Certificate Authority (like Let’s Encrypt). Certificate creation and renewal happen automatically once you configure and enable this feature in the Host CRD.

The custom Host resource defines how Ambassador Edge Stack will be visible to the outside world. It collects all the following information in a single configuration resource.

A typical Host configuration looks like below:

apiVersion: getambassador.io/v3alpha1
kind: Host
metadata:
  name: echo-host
  namespace: ambassador
spec:
  hostname: echo.starter-kit.online
  acmeProvider:
    email: echo@gmail.com
  tlsSecret:
    name: tls2-cert
  requestPolicy:
    insecure:
      action: Redirect
      additionalPort: 8080

Explanations for the above configuration:

  • hostname: The hostname by which Ambassador Edge Stack will be reachable.
  • acmeProvider: Tells Ambassador Edge Stack what Certificate Authority to use and request certificates from. The email address is used by the Certificate Authority to notify about any lifecycle events of the certificate.
  • tlsSecret: The Kubernetes Secret name to use for storing the certificate after the Ambassador Edge Stack ACME challenge finishes successfully.
  • requestPolicy: Tells how Ambassador Edge Stack should handle secure and insecure requests.
  • The hostname must be reachable from the internet so the CA can POST to an endpoint in Ambassador Edge Stack.
  • In general, the registrant email address is mandatory when using ACME and it should be valid to receive notifications about certificates’ expiry.
  • The Ambassador Edge Stack built-in ACME client knows to handle HTTP-01 challenges only. For other ACME challenge types like DNS-01, an external certificate management tool is required (e.g. Cert-Manager).

For more details, please visit the AES Host CRD official documentation.

The following examples configure the TLS-enabled hosts for this tutorial: echo_host and quote_host.

First, change the directory to where you cloned the Starter Kit repository.

cd Kubernetes-Starter-Kit-Developers

Then, apply the manifests:

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/echo_host.yaml

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/quote_host.yaml

Finally, inspect the AES hosts:

kubectl get hosts -n ambassador

The output looks similar to the following:

NAME         HOSTNAME                   STATE     PHASE COMPLETED      PHASE PENDING              AGE
echo-host    echo.starter-kit.online    Pending   ACMEUserRegistered   ACMECertificateChallenge   3s
quote-host   quote.starter-kit.online   Pending   ACMEUserRegistered   ACMECertificateChallenge   3s

It takes around 30 seconds to get the signed certificate for the hosts. At this point, you have the Ambassador Edge Stack installed and the hosts configured. But you still don’t have the networking (eg. DNS and Load Balancer) configured to route traffic to the cluster

Take a look and see what happens to the echo-host:

kubectl describe host echo-host -n ambassador

The output looks similar to the following:

Events:
  Type     Reason   Age                From                   Message
  ----     ------   ----               ----                   -------
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  waiting for Host DefaultsFilled change to be reflected in snapshot
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  creating private key Secret
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  waiting for private key Secret creation to be reflected in snapshot
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  waiting for Host status change to be reflected in snapshot
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  registering ACME account
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  ACME account registered
  Normal   Pending  32m                Ambassador Edge Stack  waiting for Host ACME account registration change to be reflected in snapshot
  Normal   Pending  16m (x4 over 32m)  Ambassador Edge Stack  tlsSecret "tls2-cert"."ambassador" (hostnames=["echo.starter-kit.online"]): needs updated: tlsSecret does not exist
  Normal   Pending  16m (x4 over 32m)  Ambassador Edge Stack  performing ACME challenge for tlsSecret "tls2-cert"."ambassador" (hostnames=["echo.starter-kit.online"])...
  Warning  Error    16m (x4 over 32m)  Ambassador Edge Stack  obtaining tlsSecret "tls2-cert"."ambassador" (hostnames=["echo.starter-kit.online"]): acme: Error -> One or more domains had a problem:
[echo.starter-kit.online] acme: error: 400 :: urn:ietf:params:acme:error:dns :: DNS problem: SERVFAIL looking up A for echo.starter-kit.online - the domain's nameservers may be malfunctioning
...

As seen above, the last event tells that there’s no A record to point to the echo host for the starter-kit.online domain, which results in a lookup failure. You will learn how to fix this issue in the next step of the tutorial.

Step 4 - Configuring DNS for Ambassador Edge Stack

In this step, you will configure DNS within your DigitalOcean account using a domain that you own. Then, you will create the domain A records for each host: echo and quote.

Keep in mind that DigitalOcean is not a domain name registrar. You need to buy a domain name first from Google, GoDaddy, etc.

First, please execute the following command to create a new domain (starter-kit.online):

doctl compute domain create starter-kit.online

The output looks similar to the following:

Domain                TTL
starter-kit.online    0

You need to ensure that your domain registrar is configured to point to DigitalOcean name servers.

Next, you will add the required A records for the hosts you created earlier. First, you need to identify the load balancer’s external IP created by the Ambassador Edge Stack deployment:

kubectl get svc -n ambassador

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice the EXTERNAL-IP column value for the ambassador service.

NAME               TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP       PORT(S)                      AGE
edge-stack         LoadBalancer   10.245.189.240   68.183.252.190    80:30323/TCP,443:30510/TCP   6m14s
edge-stack-admin   ClusterIP      10.245.170.181   <none>            8877/TCP,8005/TCP            6m14s
edge-stack-redis   ClusterIP      10.245.205.49    <none>            6379/TCP                     6m14s

Then, add the records (please replace the <> placeholders accordingly). You can change the TTL value as per your requirement:

doctl compute domain records create starter-kit.online --record-type "A" --record-name "echo" --record-data "<YOUR_LB_IP_ADDRESS>" --record-ttl "30"

doctl compute domain records create starter-kit.online --record-type "A" --record-name "quote" --record-data "<YOUR_LB_IP_ADDRESS>" --record-ttl "30"

If you have only one load balancer in your account, then please use the following snippet:

LOAD_BALANCER_IP=$(doctl compute load-balancer list --format IP --no-header)

doctl compute domain records create starter-kit.online --record-type "A" --record-name "echo" --record-data "$LOAD_BALANCER_IP" --record-ttl "30"

doctl compute domain records create starter-kit.online --record-type "A" --record-name "quote" --record-data "$LOAD_BALANCER_IP" --record-ttl "30"

List the available records for the starter-kit.online domain:

doctl compute domain records list starter-kit.online

The output looks similar to the following:

ID           Type    Name     Data                    Priority    Port    TTL     Weight
164171755    SOA     @        1800                    0           0       1800    0
164171756    NS      @        ns1.digitalocean.com    0           0       1800    0
164171757    NS      @        ns2.digitalocean.com    0           0       1800    0
164171758    NS      @        ns3.digitalocean.com    0           0       1800    0
164171801    A       echo     143.244.208.191         0           0       3600    0
164171809    A       quote    143.244.208.191         0           0       3600    0

Next, check the AES host status:

kubectl get hosts -n ambassador

The output looks similar to the following (the STATE column should display Ready):

NAME         HOSTNAME                   STATE   PHASE COMPLETED   PHASE PENDING   AGE
echo-host    echo.starter-kit.online    Ready                                     2m11s
quote-host   quote.starter-kit.online   Ready                                     2m12s

In case the hosts are still in a pending state, it might be due to the DNS propagation delay. Please wait for a couple of minutes and verify your host’s STATE column again.

Information: Now, the network traffic will reach the AES enabled cluster, but you need to configure the backend service paths for each host. All DNS records have one thing in common: time to live (TTL). It determines how long a record can remain cached before it expires. Greater TTL values give visitors faster performance and lower TTL values ensure that DNS changes are picked up quickly. All DNS records require a minimum TTL value of 30 seconds. For more information, please visit the How to Create, Edit and Delete DNS Records page.

In the next step, you will create two simple backend services to help you test the Ambassador Edge Stack setup.

Step 5 - Creating the Ambassador Edge Stack Backend Services

In this step, you will deploy two example backend services (applications), named echo and quote to test the Ambassador Edge Stack setup.

You can have multiple TLS enabled hosts on the same cluster. On the other hand, you can have multiple deployments and services as well. So for each backend application, a corresponding Kubernetes Deployment and Service has to be created.

First, you define a new namespace for the quote and echo backend applications.

First, change the directory where the Starter Kit repository was cloned:

cd Kubernetes-Starter-Kit-Developers

Next, create the backend namespace:

kubectl create ns backend

Then, create the echo and quote deployments.

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/echo_deployment.yaml

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/quote_deployment.yaml

Finally, create the corresponding services:

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/echo_service.yaml

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/quote_service.yaml

Inspect the deployments and services you just created:

kubectl get deployments -n backend

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice the echo and quote deployments.

NAME    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
echo    1/1     1            1           2m22s
quote   1/1     1            1           2m23s

And,

kubectl get svc -n backend

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice the echo and quote services.

NAME    TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
echo    ClusterIP   10.245.175.185   <none>        80/TCP    2m32s
quote   ClusterIP   10.245.158.116   <none>        80/TCP    2m33s

In the next step, you will create the AES Mappings for the quote and echo backend applications.

Step 6 - Configuring the Ambassador Edge Stack Mappings for Hosts

In this step, you will create the Ambassador Edge Stack mappings, so that your backend applications are ready for inbound/outbound traffic.

A typical Mapping definition looks like below:

apiVersion: getambassador.io/v3alpha1
kind: Mapping
metadata:
  name: quote-backend
  namespace: ambassador
spec:
  prefix: /quote/
  host: quote.starter-kit.online
  service: quote.backend

Mapping manages traffic routing for the quote and echo services. Each mapping has a set of fields.

  • name - a string identifying the Mapping (e.g. in diagnostics).
  • prefix - the URL prefix identifying your resource.
  • service - the name of the service handling the resource; must include the namespace (e.g. myservice.othernamespace) if the service is in a different namespace than Ambassador Edge Stack.

First, change the directory to where the Starter Kit repository was cloned on your local machine:

cd Kubernetes-Starter-Kit-Developers

Next, create a Mapping for echo and quote backend applications:

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/echo_mapping.yaml

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/quote_mapping.yaml

Inspect the AES mappings:

kubectl get mappings -n ambassador

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice the echo-backend and quote-backend lines, and how each maps to a SOURCE HOST, followed by a SOURCE PREFIX, and finally a destination service - DEST SERVICE.

NAME                          SOURCE HOST                SOURCE PREFIX                               DEST SERVICE     STATE   REASON
edge-stack-devportal                                     /documentation/                             127.0.0.1:8500
edge-stack-devportal-api                                 /openapi/                                   127.0.0.1:8500
edge-stack-devportal-assets                              /documentation/(assets|styles)/(.*)(.css)   127.0.0.1:8500
edge-stack-devportal-demo                                /docs/                                      127.0.0.1:8500
echo-backend                  echo.starter-kit.online    /echo/                                      echo.backend
quote-backend                 quote.starter-kit.online   /quote/                                     quote.backend

In the next step, you will learn how to use the DigitalOcean Proxy Protocol with Ambassador Edge Stack.

Step 7 - Enabling Proxy Protocol

An L4 load balancer replaces the original client IP with its own IP address. This is a problem, as you will lose the client IP visibility in the application, so you need to enable proxy protocol. The proxy protocol enables an L4 Load Balancer to communicate the original client IP. For this to work, you need to configure both DigitalOcean Load Balancer and AES. After deploying the AES Backend Services, and manually enabling the proxy protocol, you need to configure Ambassador Module to enable AES to use the proxy protocol.

For different DigitalOcean load balancer configurations, please refer to the examples from the official DigitalOcean Cloud Controller Manager documentation. The Proxy protocol on the DigitalOcean LoadBalancer needs to be enabled with the following annotations:

  • service.beta.kubernetes.io/do-loadbalancer-enable-proxy-protocol
  • service.beta.kubernetes.io/do-loadbalancer-tls-passthrough

Edit the Helm values file provided in the Starter Kit repository using an editor of your choice (preferably with YAML lint support).

code 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador-values-v7.3.2.yaml

Uncomment the annotations settings from the service section.

emissary-ingress: null
service:
  type: LoadBalancer
  annotations:
    service.beta.kubernetes.io/do-loadbalancer-enable-proxy-protocol: 'true'
    service.beta.kubernetes.io/do-loadbalancer-tls-passthrough: 'true'

You must NOT create a load balancer with Proxy support by using the DigitalOcean web console, as any setting done outside DOKS is automatically overridden by DOKS reconciliation.

Save the values file and apply changes using Helm:

HELM_CHART_VERSION="7.3.2"

helm upgrade edge-stack datawire/edge-stack --version "$HELM_CHART_VERSION" \
--namespace ambassador  \
-f "03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador-values-v${HELM_CHART_VERSION}.yaml"

Open and inspect the 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/ambassador_listener.yaml file provided in the Starter Kit repository using an editor of your choice (preferably with YAML lint support).

code 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/ambassador_listener.yaml

In the spec section, you will need to comment out the protocol field and enable the protocolStack for both listeners, like in the example below:

...
spec:
  port: 8080
  # protocol: HTTPS
  protocolStack:
  - PROXY
  - HTTP
  - TCP
...
spec:
  port: 8443
  # protocol: HTTPS
  protocolStack:
  - PROXY
  - TLS
  - HTTP
  - TCP
...

Finally, save the file and apply the manifest.

kubectl apply -f 03-setup-ingress-controller/assets/manifests/ambassador/ambassador_listener.yaml

Test the echo service via curl (notice that your Public IP will be present in X-Forwarded-For and X-Envoy-External-Address headers):

curl -Li https://echo.starter-kit.online/echo/
echo/                                                                                                                                                                           main!
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-type: text/plain
date: Thu, 23 Dec 2021 10:16:18 GMT
content-length: 356
x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 0
server: envoy

Request served by echo-5d8d65c665-8spcr

HTTP/1.1 GET /

Host: echo.starter-kit.online
X-Envoy-Original-Path: /echo/
Content-Length: 0
User-Agent: curl/7.77.0
X-Forwarded-Proto: https
X-Request-Id: 51e37d36-b810-4c77-8f65-e4f99f5d6b37
Accept: */*
X-Forwarded-For: 79.119.116.72
X-Envoy-External-Address: 79.119.116.72
X-Envoy-Expected-Rq-Timeout-Ms: 3000

In the next step, you will test the AES mappings configuration, and perform HTTP requests on the backend services using curl.

Step 8 - Verifying the Ambassador Edge Stack Setup

In this step, you have two hosts configured with TLS termination: quote.starter-kit.online and echo.starter-kit.online. Creating AES Mappings makes it easy to have TLS termination support and API Gateway capabilities.

By pinging quote.starter-kit.online or echo.starter-kit.online in the terminal, if you can see that packets are being sent to the AES external IP, then it means AES is using the mapping feature to reach the endpoints. Next, you’re going to verify if service mappings are working.

First, inspect the Ambassador services:

kubectl get svc -n ambassador

The output looks similar to:

NAME               TYPE           CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP      PORT(S)                      AGE
edge-stack         LoadBalancer   10.245.39.13   68.183.252.190   80:31499/TCP,443:30759/TCP   2d8h
edge-stack-admin   ClusterIP      10.245.68.14   <none>           8877/TCP,8005/TCP            2d8h
edge-stack-redis   ClusterIP      10.245.9.81    <none>           6379/TCP                     2d8h

Next, ping the quote service host:

ping quote.starter-kit.online

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice that it hits the AES external IP: 68.183.252.190.

PING quote.starter-kit.online (68.183.252.190): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 68.183.252.190: icmp_seq=0 ttl=54 time=199.863 ms
64 bytes from 68.183.252.190: icmp_seq=1 ttl=54 time=202.999 ms
...

Now, verify the quote backend service response using curl:

curl -Li http://quote.starter-kit.online/quote/

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice how it automatically redirects and is using https instead.

HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
location: https://quote.starter-kit.online/quote/
date: Thu, 12 Aug 2021 18:28:43 GMT
server: envoy
content-length: 0

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-type: application/json
date: Thu, 12 Aug 2021 18:28:43 GMT
content-length: 167
x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 0
server: envoy

{
  "server": "avaricious-blackberry-5xw0vf5k",
  "quote": "The last sentence you read is often sensible nonsense.",
  "time": "2021-08-12T18:28:43.861400709Z"
}

Finally, do the same for the echo service:

curl -Li http://echo.starter-kit.online/echo/

The output looks similar to the following snippet. Notice how it automatically redirects and is using https instead.

HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
location: https://echo.starter-kit.online/echo/
date: Thu, 12 Aug 2021 18:31:27 GMT
server: envoy
content-length: 0

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
content-type: text/plain
date: Thu, 12 Aug 2021 18:31:28 GMT
content-length: 331
x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 0
server: envoy

Request served by echo-5d5bdf99cf-cq8nh

HTTP/1.1 GET /

Host: echo.starter-kit.online
X-Forwarded-Proto: https
X-Envoy-Internal: true
X-Request-Id: 07afec17-4535-4157-bf5f-ad19dafb7bff
Content-Length: 0
X-Forwarded-For: 10.106.0.3
User-Agent: curl/7.64.1
Accept: */*
X-Envoy-Expected-Rq-Timeout-Ms: 3000
X-Envoy-Original-Path: /echo/

Given that proxy protocol is configured, you should see the original client IP in the HTTP request header as well.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned how to set up an Ingress Controller for your DOKS cluster using the Ambassador Edge Stack. Then, you discovered how AES simplifies some of the common tasks, like handling TLS certificates for your applications - enabling TLS termination, routing traffic to backend services, and adjusting resource requests and limits for the stack.

Learn More

Next, observability plays a key role in every production-ready system. In the next step, you will learn how to enable monitoring for your DOKS cluster using Prometheus.

Thanks for learning with the DigitalOcean Community. Check out our offerings for compute, storage, networking, and managed databases.

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About the authors
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Cristian Marius Tiutiu

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Technical Writer


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Thank you for creating great documentation. Everything is clearer here than in the official ambassador edge-stack documentation. Great work!

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