The author selected the Free and Open Source Fund to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.
Apache Cassandra is an open-source, masterless, and distributed NoSQL database system. Cassandra is considered highly suited for mission-critical applications and multi-node setups because it’s scalable, elastic, and fault-tolerant. Cassandra database management works through a node system, and nodes are held within a cluster.
In this tutorial, you’ll install and use Cassandra to run a single-node cluster on Ubuntu 22.04.
To complete this tutorial, you will need the following:
Note: If you update the package database and upgrade the server with the commands
sudo apt update and
sudo apt upgrade, rebooting your server before starting Step 1 in this article will stop the prompt encountered in Step 1 from popping up again.
You’ll install Cassandra using packages from the official Apache Software Foundation repositories. You will start by adding the repo so the packages are available to your system.
To begin, log in to your server:
- ssh sammy@your-server-ip
Update the package database:
- sudo apt update
Then update the system:
- sudo apt upgrade
Confirm the installation with
During the upgrade process, you may receive a prompt in your terminal (see the image below) requesting input about the kernel version installed and prompting you to reboot the server. You will not see these prompts if you upgraded and rebooted the server in the initial setup phase:
Enter to close the prompt, but make a note to reboot the server after completing this tutorial.
You may also receive the prompt shown below. If you do, press
Enter to accept the default option.
When the update has completed, use the following command to add the official Cassandra repository to the system:
- echo "deb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 40x main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cassandra.sources.list
echo command will write the string in quotation marks to a standard output, which is piped (
|) to the
tee command. The
tee command writes it to the
cassandra.sources.list file. The
-a flag instructs
tee to append the line to the end of the file. Otherwise, it would overwrite existing content, if any.
At the time of writing, the latest version of Cassandra is 4.0.4.The command references
40x because you are adding the repository for the 4.0 series of Cassandra.
If successfully added, the output should be:
Outputdeb http://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/debian 40x main
Then, using the
tee commands, add the repository’s keys to the list of trusted keys in the system:
- wget -q -O - https://www.apache.org/dist/cassandra/KEYS | sudo tee /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/cassandra.asc
In this piped command,
wget downloads the
KEYS file, which is then piped (
|) to the
tee command. The
tee command writes the input it received to the
cassandra.asc file. The
q option instructs the
wget command to suppress its normal output, and the
O option instructs
wget to write the file it downloaded to standard output (
-). This option is the uppercase letter O, not the number zero.
Refresh the package database once again:
- sudo apt update
Finally, install Cassandra:
- sudo apt install cassandra
If prompted, confirm the installation with
With that, Cassandra should now be installed on the server. In the next section, you’ll confirm that the Cassandra daemon is running.
With the package installed, the Cassandra daemon should have started automatically.
To confirm that it is running, use this command:
- sudo systemctl status cassandra
The output should be similar to the following:
Output● cassandra.service - LSB: distributed storage system for structured data Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/cassandra; generated) Active: active (running) since Tue 2022-06-28 03:25:52 UTC; 1min 32s ago Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8) Process: 4606 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/cassandra start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Tasks: 52 (limit: 9495) Memory: 2.2G CPU: 17.401s CGroup: /system.slice/cassandra.service └─4723 /usr/bin/java -ea -da:net.openhft... -XX:+UseThreadPriorities -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError -Xss256k -XX:+AlwaysPreTouch -XX> Jun 28 03:25:52 ubuntu-cass systemd: Starting LSB: distributed storage system for structured data... Jun 28 03:25:52 ubuntu-cass systemd: Started LSB: distributed storage system for structured data.
If the output indicates that the daemon failed to start with an oom-kill error, the daemon could not start because the system ran out of memory. To resolve the issue, add more RAM to your server. If you are using a DigitalOcean Droplet, you can resize the Droplet from the Console or using the API.
Now that you’ve confirmed that the Cassandra daemon is running, you’ll next check the status of the cluster and connect to it.
To connect to the cluster, you will use the
To check the cluster’s status, type:
- sudo nodetool status
In the output,
UN means it’s Up and Normal:
OutputDatacenter: datacenter1 ======================= Status=Up/Down |/ State=Normal/Leaving/Joining/Moving -- Address Load Tokens Owns (effective) Host ID Rack UN 127.0.0.1 69.08 KiB 16 100.0% d9618485-4c16-4feb-8a2a-632192c0d587 rack1
Then connect to the cluster using its interactive command line interface
You will see it connect:
OutputConnected to Test Cluster at 127.0.0.1:9042 [cqlsh 6.0.0 | Cassandra 4.0.4 | CQL spec 3.4.5 | Native protocol v5] Use HELP for help.
exit to quit:
Congratulations! You now have a single-node Cassandra cluster running on Ubuntu 22.04. You can set up a multi-node cluster with How To Install Cassandra and Run a Multi-Node Cluster. More information about Cassandra is available at the project’s website.
Thanks for learning with the DigitalOcean Community. Check out our offerings for compute, storage, networking, and managed databases.
Join our DigitalOcean community of over a million developers for free! Get help and share knowledge in our Questions & Answers section, find tutorials and tools that will help you grow as a developer and scale your project or business, and subscribe to topics of interest.Sign up now
This textbox defaults to using Markdown to format your answer.
You can type !ref in this text area to quickly search our full set of tutorials, documentation & marketplace offerings and insert the link!