// Tutorial //

How To Remove Spaces from a String In Python

Published on August 3, 2022 · Updated on December 12, 2022
Default avatar
By Pankaj
Developer and author at DigitalOcean.
How To Remove Spaces from a String In Python

Introduction

This tutorial provides examples of various methods you can use to remove whitespace from a string in Python.

A Python String is immutable, so you can’t change its value. Any method that manipulates a string value returns a new string.

The examples in this tutorial use the Python interactive console in the command line to demonstrate different methods that remove spaces. The examples use the following string:

s = '  Hello  World   From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There  '

The output is:

Output
Hello World From DigitalOcean Hi There

This string has different types of whitespace and newline characters, such as space ( ), tab (\t), newline (\n), and carriage return (\r).

Remove Leading and Trailing Spaces Using the strip() Method

The Python String strip() method removes leading and trailing characters from a string. The default character to remove is space.

Declare the string variable:

  1. s = ' Hello World From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There '

Use the strip() method to remove the leading and trailing whitespace:

  1. s.strip()

The output is:

Output
'Hello World From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There'

If you want to remove only the leading spaces or trailing spaces, then you can use the lstrip() and rstrip() methods.

Remove All Spaces Using the replace() Method

You can use the replace() method to remove all the whitespace characters from the string, including from between words.

Declare the string variable:

  1. s = ' Hello World From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There '

Use the replace() method to replace spaces with an empty string:

  1. s.replace(" ", "")

The output is:

Output
'HelloWorldFromDigitalOcean\t\n\r\tHiThere'

Remove Duplicate Spaces and Newline Characters Using the join() and split() Methods

You can remove all of the duplicate whitespace and newline characters by using the join() method with the split() method. In this example, the split() method breaks up the string into a list, using the default separator of any whitespace character. Then, the join() method joins the list back into one string with a single space (" ") between each word.

Declare the string variable:

  1. s = ' Hello World From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There '

Use the join() and split() methods together to remove duplicate spaces and newline characters:

  1. " ".join(s.split())

The output is:

Output
'Hello World From DigitalOcean Hi There'

Remove All Spaces and Newline Characters Using the translate() Method

You can remove all of the whitespace and newline characters using the translate() method. The translate() method replaces specified characters with characters defined in a dictionary or mapping table. The following example uses a custom dictionary with the string.whitespace string constant, which contains all the whitespace characters. The custom dictionary {ord(c): None for c in string.whitespace} replaces all the characters in string.whitespace with None.

Import the string module so that you can use string.whitespace:

  1. import string

Declare the string variable:

  1. s = ' Hello World From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There '

Use the translate() method to remove all whitespace characters:

  1. s.translate({ord(c): None for c in string.whitespace})

The output is:

Output
'HelloWorldFromDigitalOceanHiThere'

Remove Whitespace Characters Using Regex

You can also use a regular expression to match whitespace characters and remove them using the re.sub() function.

This example uses the following file, regexspaces.py, to show some ways you can use regex to remove whitespace characters:

regexspaces.py
import re

s = '  Hello  World   From DigitalOcean \t\n\r\tHi There  '

print('Remove all spaces using regex:\n', re.sub(r"\s+", "", s), sep='')  # \s matches all white spaces
print('Remove leading spaces using regex:\n', re.sub(r"^\s+", "", s), sep='')  # ^ matches start
print('Remove trailing spaces using regex:\n', re.sub(r"\s+$", "", s), sep='')  # $ matches end
print('Remove leading and trailing spaces using regex:\n', re.sub(r"^\s+|\s+$", "", s), sep='')  # | for OR condition

Run the file from the command line:

python3 regexspaces.py

You get the following output:

Remove all spaces using regex:
HelloWorldFromDigitalOceanHiThere
Remove leading spaces using regex:
Hello  World   From DigitalOcean 	
	Hi There  
Remove trailing spaces using regex:
  Hello  World   From DigitalOcean 	
	Hi There
Remove leading and trailing spaces using regex:
Hello  World   From DigitalOcean 	
	Hi There

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned some of the methods you can use to remove whitespace characters from strings in Python. Continue your learning about Python strings.

Want to deploy your application quickly? Try Cloudways, the #1 managed hosting provider for small-to-medium businesses, agencies, and developers - for free. DigitalOcean and Cloudways together will give you a reliable, scalable, and hassle-free managed hosting experience with anytime support that makes all your hosting worries a thing of the past. Start with $100 in free credits!

Learn more here


About the authors
Default avatar
Pankaj

author

Developer and author at DigitalOcean.

Default avatar
Technical Editor

Still looking for an answer?

Ask a questionSearch for more help

Was this helpful?
 
JournalDev
DigitalOcean Employee
DigitalOcean Employee badge
June 2, 2021

Thank you so much.

- Sai Vinay Palakodeti

    JournalDev
    DigitalOcean Employee
    DigitalOcean Employee badge
    September 30, 2020

    hey nice one thank you helped me in my code

    - Moulya

      JournalDev
      DigitalOcean Employee
      DigitalOcean Employee badge
      August 1, 2020

      Very helpful article, Pankaj. Thank you for this

      - ypll

        JournalDev
        DigitalOcean Employee
        DigitalOcean Employee badge
        April 16, 2020

        greeting= “Hello” user= “Guy” message= “welcome to the thunderdome Friend” print(greeting.upper(), user.capitalize(), message.strip( ).lower() ) ive also tried print(greeting.upper(), user.capitalize(), message.replace(" ", " ").lower() ) goal is to lowercase friend and get rid of white space. when I run the .py file through cmd it just returns HELLO Guy welcome to the thunderdome friend no matter what I seem to try

        - Pegel

          JournalDev
          DigitalOcean Employee
          DigitalOcean Employee badge
          March 11, 2020

          the replace function helped me where i was thinking of a more complex solution. So thank you

          - Munir

            JournalDev
            DigitalOcean Employee
            DigitalOcean Employee badge
            February 26, 2020

            This was so helpful! Thanks for putting this together! :)

            - Azmain Nisak

              JournalDev
              DigitalOcean Employee
              DigitalOcean Employee badge
              April 18, 2019

              let me explain you with an simple example s= (" PYTHON “) #so here i am using both and leading and trailing spaces output= s.strip(” “) # in between double quotes i am using space as i have used space before and after PYTHON print(output) # you will get output as “PYTHON” … another example while using idle --------------------------------------- >>> s= (” python ") >>> s.strip() ‘python’ >>> see both the trailing and leading spaces have been removed

              - DEEPAK

                JournalDev
                DigitalOcean Employee
                DigitalOcean Employee badge
                December 16, 2018

                You really need to point out that the functions create and return a new string, they do not change the original. Yes, strings being immutable is a foundational Python concept but someone who’s looking for this level of help is probably very new to Python. It can be incredibly frustrating for a beginner to find a page like this and do: s = " My string with leading/trailing spaces ’ s.strip() print(s) What the heck? It doesn’t work!

                - DJ

                  JournalDev
                  DigitalOcean Employee
                  DigitalOcean Employee badge
                  October 22, 2018

                  I don’t see anymore the date things were published. Why is it removed? Regards

                  - Valentino

                    Try DigitalOcean for free

                    Click here to Sign up and get $200 of credit to try our products over 60 days!