How To Automate Ruby On Rails Application Deployments Using Capistrano

Updated on March 23, 2022

O.S. Tezer

How To Automate Ruby On Rails Application Deployments Using Capistrano


If you are not already fed up with repeating the same mundane tasks to update your application servers to get your project online, you probably will be eventually The joy you feel whilst developing your project tends to take a usual hit when it comes to the boring bits of system administration (e.g. uploading your codebase, amending configurations, executing commands over and over again, etc.)

But do not fear! Capistrano, the task-automation-tool, is here to help.

In this DigitalOcean article, we are going create a rock-solid server setup, running the latest version of CentOS to host Ruby-on-Rails applications using Nginx and Passenger. We will continue with learning how to automate the process of deployments - and updates - using the Ruby based automation tool Capistrano.

Note: This article builds on the knowledge from our past Capistrano article: Automating Deployments With Capistrano: Getting Started. In order to gain a good knowledge of the tool, which is highly recommended if you are going to use it, you are advised to read it before continuing with this piece. Likewise, if you would like to learn more about preparing a fresh droplet for Rails based application deployments with Passenger (and Nginx), check out the How To Deploy Rails Apps Using Passenger With Nginx article.

Note: Capistrano relies on Git for deployments. To learn more consider reading DigitalOcean community articles on the subject by clicking here.


1. Preparing The Deployment Server

  1. Updating And Preparing The Operating System
  2. Setting Up Ruby Environment and Rails
  3. Downloading And Installing App. & HTTP Servers
  4. Creating The Nginx Management Script
  5. Configuring Nginx For Application Deployment
  6. Downloading And Installing Capistrano
  7. Creating A System User For Deployment

2. Preparing Rails Applications For Git-Based Capistrano Deployment

  1. Creating A Basic Ruby-On-Rails Application
  2. Creating A Git Repository

3. Working With Capistrano To Automate Deployments

  1. Installing Capistrano Inside The Project Directory
  2. Working With config/deploy.rb Inside The Project Directory
  3. Working With config/deploy/production.rb Inside The Project Directory
  4. Deploying To The Production Server

Preparing The Deployment Server

Note: To have a better understanding of the below section, which can be considered a lengthy summary, check out the full article on the subject: How To Deploy Rails Apps Using Passenger With Nginx.

Updating And Preparing The Operating System

Run the following command to update the default tools of your CentOS based droplet:

yum -y update

Install the bundle containing development tools by executing the following command:

yum groupinstall -y 'development tools'

Some of the packages we need for this tutorial (e.g. libyaml-devel, nginx etc.) are not found within the official CentOS repository.

Run the following to add the EPEL repository:

sudo su -c 'rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm'

yum -y update

Finally, in order to install some additional libraries and tools, run the following command:

yum install -y curl-devel nano sqlite-devel libyaml-devel

Setting Up Ruby Environment and Rails

Note: This section is a summary of our dedicated article How To Install Ruby 2.1.0 On CentOS 6.5.

Run the following two commands to install RVM and create a system environment for Ruby:

curl -L get.rvm.io | bash -s stable

source /etc/profile.d/rvm.sh
rvm reload
rvm install 2.1.0

Since Rails needs a JavaScript interpreter, we will also need to set up Node.js.

Run the following to download and install nodejs using yum:

yum install -y nodejs

Execute the following command using RubyGems’ gem to download and install rails:

gem install bundler rails

Downloading And Installing App. & HTTP Servers

Note: If your VPS has less than 1 GB of RAM, you will need to perform the below simple procedure to prepare a SWAP disk space to be used as a temporary data holder (RAM substitute). Since DigitalOcean servers come with fast SSD disks, this does not really constitute an issue whilst performing the server application installation tasks.

# Create a 1024 MB SWAP space
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap bs=1M count=1024
sudo mkswap /swap
sudo swapon /swap

Phusion Passenger

Red Hat Linux’s default package manager RPM (RPM Package Manager) ships applications contained within .rpm files. Unfortunately, in Passenger’s case, they are quite outdated. Therefore, we will be using RubyGem, once again, to download and install the latest available version of Passenger – version 4.

Use the below command to simply download and install passenger:

gem install passenger


Note: Normally, to download and install Nginx, you could add the EPEL repository (as we have already done) and get Nginx via yum. However, to get Nginx work with Passenger, its source must be compiled with the necessary modules.

Run the following to start compiling Nginx with native Passenger module:


Once you run the command, press Enter and confirm your choice of language(s) (i.e. Ruby, in our case). You can use arrow keys and the space bar to select Ruby alone, if you wish.

Use <space> to select.
If the menu doesn't display correctly, ensure that your terminal supports UTF-8.

 ‣ ⬢  Ruby
   ⬢  Python
   ⬢  Node.js
   ⬡  Meteor

In the next step, choose Item 1:

1. Yes: download, compile and install Nginx for me. (recommended)
    The easiest way to get started. A stock Nginx 1.4.4 with Passenger
    support, but with no other additional third party modules, will be
    installed for you to a directory of your choice.

And press Enter to continue.

Now, Nginx source will be downloaded, compiled, and installed with Passenger support.

Note: This action might take a little while – probably longer than one would like or expect!

Creating The Nginx Management Script

After compiling Nginx, in order to control it with ease, we need to create a simple management script.

Run the following commands to create the script:

nano /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx

Copy and paste the below contents:

. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
. /etc/sysconfig/network
[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0

prog=$(basename $nginx)



start() {
    [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
    [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
    daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
    return $retval

stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc $prog -QUIT
    [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
    return $retval

restart() {
    configtest || return $?

reload() {
    configtest || return $?
    echo -n $”Reloading $prog: ”
    killproc $nginx -HUP

force_reload() {

configtest() {
    $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE

rh_status() {
    status $prog

rh_status_q() {
    rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1

case "$1" in
rh_status_q && exit 0
rh_status_q || exit 0
rh_status_q || exit 7
rh_status_q || exit 0
echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"
exit 2

Press CTRL+X and confirm with Y to save and exit.

Set the mode of this management script as executable:

chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx

Configuring Nginx For Application Deployment

In this final step of configuring our servers, we need to create an Nginx server block, which roughly translates to Apache’s virtual hosts.

As you might remember seeing during Passenger’s Nginx installation, this procedure consists of adding a block of code to Nginx’s configuration file nginx.conf. By default, unless you states otherwise, this file can be found under /opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf.

Type the following command to open up this configuration file to edit it with the text editor nano:

nano /opt/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

As the first step, find the http { node and append the following right after the passenger_root and passenger_ruby directives:

# Only for development purposes.
# Remove this line when you upload an actual application.
# For * TESTING * purposes only.
passenger_app_env development;    

Scroll down the file and find server { ... Comment out the default location, i.e.:


#    location / {
#            root   html;
#            index  index.html index.htm;
#        }


And define your default application root:

# Set the folder where you will be deploying your application.
# We are using: /home/deployer/apps/my_app
root              /home/deployer/apps/my_app/public;
passenger_enabled on;

Press CTRL+X and confirm with Y to save and exit.

Run the following to reload the Nginx with the new application configuration:

# !! Remember to create an Nginx management script
#    by following the main Rails deployment article for CentOS
#    linked at the beginning of this section.

/etc/init.d/nginx restart

To check the status of Nginx, you can use:

/etc/init.d/nginx status

Note: To learn more about Nginx, please refer to How to Configure Nginx Web Server on a VPS.

Downloading And Installing Capistrano

Once we have our system ready, getting Capistrano’s latest version, thanks to RubyGems is a breeze.

You can simply use the following to get Capistrano version 3:

gem install capistrano

Creating A System User For Deployment

In this step, we are going to create a CentOS system user to perform the actions of deployment. This is going to be the user for Capistrano to use.

Note: To keep things basic, we are going to create a deployer user with necessary privileges. For a more complete set up, consider using the groups example from the Capistrano introduction tutorial.

Create a new system user deployer:

adduser deployer

Set up deployer’s password:

passwd deployer

# Enter a password
# Confirm the password

Edit /etc/sudoers using the text editor nano:

nano /etc/sudoers

Scroll down the file and find where root is defined:


## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it.
## Allow root to run any commands anywhere
root    ALL=(ALL)	ALL


Append the following right after root ALL=(ALL) ALL:

deployer ALL=(ALL) ALL

This section of the /etc/sudoers file should now look like this:


## The COMMANDS section may have other options added to it.
## Allow root to run any commands anywhere
root     ALL=(ALL)	ALL
deployer ALL=(ALL) ALL


Press CTRL+X and confirm with Y to save and exit.

Preparing Rails Applications For Git-Based Capistrano Deployment

Once we have our system ready, with all the necessary applications set up and working correctly, we can move on to creating an exemplary Rails application to use as a sample.

In the second stage, we are going to create a Git repository and push the code base to a central, accessible location at Github for Capistrano to use for deployments.

Note: Here, we are creating a sample application. For the actual deployments, you should perform these actions on your own, after making sure that everything is backed up – just in case! Also, please note that you will need to run Capistrano from a different location than the server where the application needs to be deployed.

Creating A Basic Ruby-On-Rails Application

Note: The below step is there to create a substitute Rails application to try out Capistrano.

Having Ruby and Rails already installed leaves us with just a single command to get started.

Execute the following command to get Rails create a new application called my_app:

# Create a sample Rails application
rails new my_app

# Enter the application directory
cd my_app

# Create a sample resource
rails generate scaffold Task title:string note:text

# Create a sample database
RAILS_ENV=development rake db:migrate

To test that your application is set correctly and everything is working fine, enter the app directory and run a simple server via rails s:

# Enter the application directory
cd my_app

# Run a simple server
rails s

# You should now be able to access it by
# visiting: http://[your droplet's IP]:3000

# In order to terminate the server process,
# Press CTRL+C

Creating A Git Repository

Note: To learn more about working with Git, check out the How To Use Git Effectively tutorial at DigitalOcean community pages.

Note: In order to follow this section, you will need a Github account. Alternatively, you can set up a droplet to host your own Git repository following this DigitalOcean article on the subject. If you choose to do so, make sure to use the relevant URL on deployment files.

We are going to use the sample instructions supplied by Github to create a source repository.

Execute the following, self-explanatory commands inside the my_app directory to initiate a repository:

# !! These commands are to be executed on
#    your development machine, from where you will
#    deploy to your server.
#    Instructions might vary slightly depending on
#    your choice of operating system.
#    Make sure to set correct paths for application
#    Otherwise Nginx might not be able to locate it.

# Initiate the repository
git init

# Add all the files to the repository
git add .

# Commit the changes
git commit -m "first commit"

# Add your Github repository link 
# Example: git remote add origin git@github.com:[user name]/[proj. name].git
git remote add origin git@github.com:user123/my_app.git

# Create an RSA/SSH key
# Follow the on-screen instructions
ssh-keygen -t rsa

# View the contents of the key and add it to your Github
# by copy-and-pasting from the current remote session by
# visiting: https://github.com/settings/ssh
# To learn more about the process,
# visit: https://help.github.com/articles/generating-ssh-keys
cat /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

# Set your Github information
# Username:
# Usage: git config --global user.name "[your username]"
git config --global user.name "user123"

# Email:
# Usage: git config --global user.email "[your email]"
git config --global user.email "user123@domain.tld"

# Push the project's source code to your Github account
git push -u origin master

Working With Capistrano To Automate Deployments

As you will remember from our first Capistrano article, the way to begin using the library is by installing it inside the project directory. In this section, we will see how to do that, followed by creating files that are needed to set servers.

Installing Capistrano Inside The Project Directory

Another simple step in our article is installing the Capistrano files. The below command will scaffold some directories and files to be used by the tool for the deployment.

Run the following to initiate (i.e. install) Capistrano files:

cap install

# mkdir -p config/deploy
# create config/deploy.rb
# create config/deploy/staging.rb
# create config/deploy/production.rb
# mkdir -p lib/capistrano/tasks
# Capified

Working With config/deploy.rb Inside The Project Directory

The file deploy.rb contains arguments and settings relevant to the deployment server(s). Here, we will tell Capistrano to which server(s) we would like to connect and deploy and how.

Note: When editing the file (or defining the configurations), you can either comment them out or add the new lines. Make sure to not to have some example settings overriding the ones you are appending.

Run the following to edit the file using nano text editor:

nano config/deploy.rb

Add the below block of code, modifying it to suit your own settings:

# Define the name of the application
set :application, 'my_app'

# Define where can Capistrano access the source repository
# set :repo_url, 'https://github.com/[user name]/[application name].git'
set :scm, :git
set :repo_url, 'https://github.com/user123/my_app.git'

# Define where to put your application code
set :deploy_to, "/home/deployer/apps/my_app"

set :pty, true

set :format, :pretty

# Set the post-deployment instructions here.
# Once the deployment is complete, Capistrano
# will begin performing them as described.
# To learn more about creating tasks,
# check out:
# http://capistranorb.com/

# namespace: deploy do

#   desc 'Restart application'
#   task :restart do
#     on roles(:app), in: :sequence, wait: 5 do
#       # Your restart mechanism here, for example:
#       execute :touch, release_path.join('tmp/restart.txt')
#     end
#   end

#   after :publishing, :restart

#   after :restart, :clear_cache do
#     on roles(:web), in: :groups, limit: 3, wait: 10 do
#       # Here we can do anything such as:
#       # within release_path do
#       #   execute :rake, 'cache:clear'
#       # end
#     end
#   end

# end

Press CTRL+X and confirm with Y to save and exit.

Working With config/deploy/production.rb Inside The Project Directory

Note: Similar to deploy.rb, you will need to make some amendments to the production.rb file. You are better modifying the code instead of appending the below block.

Run the following to edit the file using nano text editor:

nano config/deploy/production.rb

Enter your server’s settings, similar to below:

# Define roles, user and IP address of deployment server
# role :name, %{[user]@[IP adde.]}
role :app, %w{deployer@}
role :web, %w{deployer@}
role :db,  %w{deployer@}

# Define server(s)
server '', user: 'deployer', roles: %w{web}

# SSH Options
# See the example commented out section in the file
# for more options.
set :ssh_options, {
    forward_agent: false,
    auth_methods: %w(password),
    password: 'user_deployers_password',
    user: 'deployer',

Press CTRL+X and confirm with Y to save and exit.

Deploying To The Production Server

Once we are done with the settings, it is time to deploy.

Run the following code on your development machine to deploy to the production server. As defined in the above files, Capistrano will:

  • Connect to the deployment server

  • Download the application source

  • Perform the deployment actions (i.e. get passenger restart the application)

cap production deploy

To learn more about Capistrano and what it can do, consider reading the Capistrano documentation.

<div class=“author”>Submitted by: <a href=“https://twitter.com/ostezer”>O.S. Tezer</a></div>

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Tutorial Series: How To Use Capistrano to Automate Deployments

Capistrano is a Ruby based remote server automation tool which can be easily used to automate mundane deployment and system management tasks. Using Capistrano, you can almost entirely automate all actions you would normally take to get your product live.

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Hi, When going through “Creating The Nginx Management Script” section, after introducing the comand “nano /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx” and pasting the content, I am not being able to save the file as I am gettin error message: “Error writing /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx: No such file or directory”. I am working over Ubuntu 16.04 Could you please confirm which is my mistake? Regards. Alex.

Great article, thank you!

When setting up my puma workers, modifying the line in the deploy.rb file was not the only step needed. It might be worth a mention for those fine tuning puma to take a look at the docs here: https://github.com/seuros/capistrano-puma

You essentially have to either generate and push it to the machine: cap production puma:config

Anyway, thanks again for the post, super helpful.

Finally, which de url to access to my app in ruby on rails, for another pc in the extranet (internet), after apply this steps?

Another note. Adding this to the beginning of the /etc/rc.d/init.d/nginx script will give you the ability to “chkconfig --add nginx && chkconfig nginx on”

After #!/bin/sh add this.

# Provides:          nginx
# Required-Start:    $local_fs $remote_fs
# Required-Stop:     $local_fs $remote_fs
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      S 0 1 6
# Short-Description: nginx initscript
# Description:       nginx

I have followed this guide several times and I always end up with the problem of some users not having proper access to RVM and GEM which leaves me troubleshooting for a while before figuring it out.

I’ve started installing RVM as root and following the instructions that rvm gives. Hopefully this saves some headaches for other.

After running:

# curl -L get.rvm.io | bash -s stable

^^^ Careful to add the gpg2 key.

You will see this. following the instructions.

Creating group 'rvm'

Installing RVM to /usr/local/rvm/
Installation of RVM in /usr/local/rvm/ is almost complete:

  * First you need to add all users that will be using rvm to 'rvm' group,
    and logout - login again, anyone using rvm will be operating with `umask u=rwx,g=rwx,o=rx`.

  * To start using RVM you need to run `source /etc/profile.d/rvm.sh`
    in all your open shell windows, in rare cases you need to reopen all shell windows.

A few errata:

CentOS 7 requires the following to access EPEL:

wget http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/e/epel-release-7-2.noarch.rpm
rpm -ivh epel-release-7-2.noarch.rpm

You will need to trust the RVM GPG key before curl -L get.rvm.io | bash -s stable

Using --no-ri and --no-rdoc when installing rails makes the process quick (when it can otherwise stall indefinitely).

gem install bundler rails --no-ri --no-rdoc

The tutorial became quite unclear when I got to this section:

1. Preparing The Deployment Server 5. Configuring Nginx for Application Deployment

First, it’s unclear where you want me to define my default application root. Do you want it within server {…} section, or just within the http {…} section?

Secondly, you throw this into the comment section of some code (which I missed on the first pass):

Remember to create an Nginx management script by following the main Rails deployment article for CentOS linked at the beginning of this section.

You reference a link at the beginning of the article but I couldn’t find anything related to what you describe. Why not just show me how to do it?

Lastly, you say this is a 2-part tutorial but the first part is just repeated in the second part. You should really redo this tutorial.

Note: If you are using CentOS 7.0, you’ll need to run

$ get http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/beta/7/x86_64/epel-release-7-0.2.noarch.rpm $ rpm -ivh epel-release-7-0.2.noarch.rpm

rather than

$ sudo su -c ‘rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/x86_64/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm

I found what I needed finally: http://capistranorb.com/documentation/getting-started/authentication-and-authorisation/ - This explains how to setup an ssh key for your deployer user. So you’ll want to make sure that you can ssh in as deployer@ip as well by following that guide. Once you do that, you don’t have to put your deployer user’s password in your configuration file.

I’ve read that its not a good practice to put your user’s password in your configuration files? Isn’t there a way to do this with ssh keys instead? I’ve been trying but haven’t had any luck. I really don’t want to put my server password in any code files.

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