// Tutorial //

How To Backup and Restore a Kubernetes Cluster Using TrilioVault For Kubernetes

Published on September 19, 2022
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By Bhagirath Hapse
PM, Partner Ecosystems
How To Backup and Restore a Kubernetes Cluster Using TrilioVault For Kubernetes

How To Backup and Restore a Kubernetes Cluster Using TrilioVault For Kubernetes

The author selected the Diversity in Tech Fund to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.

Introduction

TrilioVault for Kubernetes (TVK) is a cloud-native solution that secures your application metadata and data by storing on-demand backups in an independent storage repository.

There are a few advantages of using Trilio. With Trilio, you can take full or incremental backups of your cluster and restore them in case of data loss. You can migrate from one cluster to another and run pre- and post-hooks for backup and restore operations. You can also schedule backups and define retention policies for your backups. Finally, you can also use the web management console to inspect your backup and restore operations state in detail (along with many other features).

This article provides instructions for protecting your local Kubernetes cluster deployment or a DigitalOcean Kubernetes Service using TVK, including the stateful or stateless applications deployed on the cluster. In this tutorial, you will deploy TVK to your Kubernetes cluster, create a cluster backup, and recover from the backup.

Prerequisites

To complete this tutorial, you’ll need the following:

  • A DigitalOcean account. If you do not have one, sign up for a new account.
  • A DigitalOcean Kubernetes cluster with multiple namespaces. You can create a cluster by following our documentation on How To Create Clusters.
  • Doctl for DigitalOcean API interaction. To get started, see our guide on How To Install and Configure doctl.
  • Kubectl for Kubernetes interaction. For installation and set up, see the Kubernetes product documentation for Install Tools.
  • A DigitalOcean Spaces bucket or any S3-compatible object storage bucket with its access keys. To use a DigitalOcean Spaces bucket, follow our guides on How to Create Spaces and How to Manage Administrative Access with access keys. Save the access and secret keys in a safe place for later use. You can also use NFS export to store the backup.
  • Helm for managing TrilioVault Operator releases and upgrades. For installation, see Step 1 of our tutorial, How To Install Software on Kubernetes Clusters with the Helm 3 Package Manager.
  • A TrilioVault license saved as a yaml file. This tutorial uses Cluster-scoped installation, which you may need to select when fetching the license. For DigitalOcean users, the TVK installation is free for five years. If you are not using a DigitalOcean Kubernetes cluster, you will need to enroll on the Trilio website to request a TVK license. There are free trials and a free basic version available.

Step 1 — Configuring the Kubernetes Cluster

In this step, you will check the configuration of your Kubernetes cluster to ensure TrilioVault will work correctly.

For TrilioVault to work correctly and to backup your PersistentVolumeClaim (PVCs), the Kubernetes cluster needs to be configured to support the Container Storage Interface (CSI). By default, the DigitalOcean Managed Kubernetes Service comes with the CSI driver already installed and configured. You can check this using the following command:

  1. kubectl get storageclass

The output should look similar to this:

Output
NAME PROVISIONER RECLAIMPOLICY VOLUMEBINDINGMODE ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION AGE do-block-storage (default) dobs.csi.digitalocean.com Delete Immediate true 1d

As you can see, the provisioner is dobs.csi.digitalocean.com.

The TrilioVault installation also needs volumeSnapshot Custom Resource Definition (CRD) for successful installation. You can check this using the following command:

  1. kubectl get crd | grep volumesnapshot

If the volumeSnapshot is already installed, the output will look similar to this:

Output
volumesnapshotclasses.snapshot.storage.k8s.io2022-03-02T07:24:23Z volumesnapshotcontents.snapshot.storage.k8s.io2022-03-02T07:24:23Z volumesnapshots.snapshot.storage.k8s.io2022-03-02T07:24:23Z |

If volumeSnapshot is not already installed, refer to the documentation for Installing VolumeSnapshot CRDs.

Finally, make sure that the CRD supports the v1 API version, which you can check by running the following command:

  1. kubectl get crd volumesnapshots.snapshot.storage.k8s.io -o yaml

At the end of the CRD yaml output, you should see a storedVersions list containing v1 values:

Output
... - lastTransitionTime: "2022-01-20T07:58:06Z" message: approved in https://github.com/kubernetes-csi/external-snapshotter/pull/419 reason: ApprovedAnnotation status: "True" type: KubernetesAPIApprovalPolicyConformant storedVersions: - v1

If this is not installed, refer to the documentation for Installing VolumeSnapshot CRDs.

In this step, you confirmed that your Kubernetes configuration is prepared for installing TrilioVault, which you will do in the next step.

Step 2 — Installing TrilioVault for Kubernetes

In this step, you will deploy TrilioVault for a local Kubernetes Cluster and manage TVK installations via Helm. Backup data will be stored in the S3-compatible bucket that you created as part of the Prerequisites.

The TrilioVault application can be installed in multiple ways, depending on the Kubernetes cluster distribution. In this tutorial, you will install TrilioVault using Helm via the triliovault-operator chart.

This tutorial uses the Cluster-scoped installation type for the tvk application. With this type of installation, TVK can protect all applications across namespaces. (In contrast, with a Namespace-scoped installation, TVK can only protect applications deployed in that namespace.)

To install TrilioVault for Kubernetes, you will need a license, which you requested as a part of the prerequisites. When fetching the TVK license, you may need to select Cluster-scoped installation.

Installing TrilioVault Using Helm

To install TrilioVault via Helm, first add the TrilioVault Helm repository and list the available charts using the following command:

  1. helm repo add triliovault-operator http://charts.k8strilio.net/trilio-stable/k8s-triliovault-operator
  2. helm repo update triliovault-operator
  3. helm search repo triliovault-operator

The output looks similar to the following:

Output
NAME CHART VERSION APP VERSION DESCRIPTION triliovault-operator/k8s-triliovault-operator 2.10.3 2.10.3 K8s-TrilioVault-Operator is an operator designe...

Finally, install TrilioVault for Kubernetes using helm:

  1. helm install triliovault-operator triliovault-operator/k8s-triliovault-operator \
  2. --namespace tvk \
  3. --set installTVK.ingressConfig.host="demo-tutorial.tvk-doks.com" \
  4. --create-namespace

This command installs the triliovault-operator and the TriloVault Manager (TVM) Custom Resource using the default parameters provided in the TrilioVault Helm values file, triliovault-values.yaml.

  • TVK Operator: TVK has a Helm-based Operator, which is managed by a CRD called TrilioVault Manager. The TVK Operator takes care of the lifecycle of the application and auto-recovery in case one of the application components goes down.

  • TVK Manager: The TVK application contains several CRDs and their controllers. It has its own webhook server that manages the validation and mutation of its CRD instances. Controllers reconcile the events generated by the operations done on the Custom Resources.

This tutorial uses the default values in the TrilioVault Helm values file (triliovault-values.yaml), including the following:

  • installTVK.applicationScope: The scope for the TVK installation can be Cluster or Namespaced. This parameter protects applications either across the ‘Cluster’ or ‘Namespace’, and the TVK license is also generated based on the installation scope. This tutorial uses Cluster-scoped installation.
  • installTVK.ingressConfig.host: The domain name for the TVK UI hostname, which is demo-tutorial.tvk-doks.com. Users will access the TVK Management Console through this domain name.
  • installTVK.ComponentConfiguration.ingressController.service.type: The service type to access the TVK UI, such as NodePort or LoadBalancer.

Note: To see all available options, you could inspect the TrilioVault Helm values file. For more information, please check the TVK documentation for configuration options.

Run the following command to check your tvk deployment:

  1. helm ls -n tvk

This command will list the helm repositories you’ve added:

Output
NAME NAMESPACE REVISION UPDATED STATUS CHART APP VERSION triliovault-manager-tvk tvk 1 2022-08-18 08:19:50.409742366 +0000 UTC deployed k8s-triliovault-2.10.3 2.10.3 triliovault-operator tvk 1 2022-08-18 08:15:51.618651231 +0000 UTC deployed k8s-triliovault-operator-2.10.3 2.10.3

The STATUS column should display deployed.

Next, verify that TrilioVault is up and running. Run the following command, which will show the status of the tvk installation:

  1. kubectl get deployments -n tvk

This command will display the deployments in the tvk namespace.

The output will look similar to the following:

Output
NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE k8s-triliovault-admission-webhook 1/1 1 1 83s k8s-triliovault-control-plane 1/1 1 1 83s k8s-triliovault-exporter 1/1 1 1 83s k8s-triliovault-ingress-nginx-controller 1/1 1 1 83s k8s-triliovault-web 1/1 1 1 83s k8s-triliovault-web-backend 1/1 1 1 83s triliovault-operator-k8s-triliovault-operator 1/1 1 1 4m22s

The READY column displays how many deployments are available following the pattern of ready/desired. All the deployments pods are in the READY state, which means that tvk was installed successfully. Next, you will check your TrilioVault license type and validity.

Checking the TrilioVault Application License

As part of the prerequisites, you requested a TrilioVault license for the Cluster-scoped installation type and saved it as a yaml file. In this section, you will apply your TrilioVault license, confirm its status, and inspect its fields.

As part of the prerequisites, you downloaded a free license from Trilio’s website and saved it as a yaml file. Now, apply it using the below command:

  1. kubectl apply -f your_license_filename.yaml -n tvk

Next, check whether the license is installed and in the Active state on your cluster:

  1. kubectl get license -n tvk

The output looks similar to the following:

Output
NAME STATUS MESSAGE CURRENT NODE COUNT GRACE PERIOD END TIME EDITION CAPACITY EXPIRATION TIME MAX NODES your_license Active Cluster License Activated successfully. 1 Basic 100 2023-04-25T00:00:00Z 1

Check the STATUS, which should be Active. You can also verify your license type in the EDITION column and the license expiration in the EXPIRATION TIME column.

The license is managed via a special CRD called the License object. You can inspect it by running the below command, replacing the highlighted portion with your license name, as shown in the previous output:

  1. kubectl describe license your_license -n tvk

The output looks similar to the following:

Output
Name: your_license Namespace: tvk Labels: <none> Annotations: generation: 4 triliovault.trilio.io/creator: trilio.user@trilio.io triliovault.trilio.io/instance-id: 1350188a-9289-49ba-9086-553e8cd7cabe triliovault.trilio.io/updater: [{"username":"system:serviceaccount:tvk:k8s-triliovault","lastUpdatedTimestamp":"2022-04-21T09:50:40.530365762Z"},{"username":"0c9f7f19-c4... API Version: triliovault.trilio.io/v1 Kind: License Metadata: Creation Timestamp: 2022-04-06T08:07:16Z ... Status: Condition: Message: Cluster License Activated successfully. Status: Active Timestamp: 2022-04-06T08:07:17Z Current CPU Count: 6 Max CP Us: 6 Message: Cluster License Activated successfully. Properties: Active: true Capacity: 100 Company: TRILIO-KUBERNETES-LICENSE-GEN-BASIC Creation Timestamp: 2022-04-21T00:00:00Z Edition: Basic Expiration Timestamp: 2027-04-25T00:00:00Z Kube UID: 1350188a-9289-49ba-9086-553e8cd7cabe License ID: TVAULT-7f70e73e-c158-11ec-990f-0cc47a9fd48e Maintenance Expiry Timestamp: 2027-04-25T00:00:00Z Number Of Users: -1 Purchase Timestamp: 2022-04-21T00:00:00Z Scope: Cluster ...

Check the Message and Capacity fields, as well as Edition.

The above output will also tell you when the license is going to expire in the Expiration Timestamp field, as well as the Scope (Cluster-based in this case). More details can be found on the TrilioVault for Kubernetes licensing documentation page.

In this step, you applied your TVK license and confirmed its status. Next, you will explore the TVK web console, which will help you manage Targets, backups, restorations, and more.

Step 3 — Accessing the TVK Management Console

In this step, you’ll access the TVK Management Console, where you can create Targets and manage operations such as backups and restoration via a GUI. While you can manage operations from the CLI via kubectl and CRDs, the TVK management console simplifies common tasks via point-and-click operations and provides better visualization and inspection of TVK cluster objects.

In the previous section on Installing TrilioVault Using Helm, you installed and configured the required components for the web management console. To access the console and explore the features it offers, you’ll export the kubeconfig file for your Kubernetes cluster and port-forward the ingress controller service for TVK.

Begin by exporting the kubeconfig file for your Kubernetes cluster. This step is required so that the web console can authenticate you.

If you are using the DigitalOcean Kubernetes service, you can follow these steps to export your kubeconfig file.

List the available clusters:

  1. doctl k8s cluster list

Save the cluster configuration to YAML, replacing the highlighted values your with cluster’s name:

  1. doctl kubernetes cluster kubeconfig show YOUR_CLUSTER_NAME_ > config_YOUR_CLUSTER_NAME_.yaml

Note: If you have only one cluster, the below command can be used:

  1. DOKS_CLUSTER_NAME="$(doctl k8s cluster list --no-header --format Name)"
  2. doctl kubernetes cluster kubeconfig show $DOKS_CLUSTER_NAME > config_${DOKS_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml

Be sure to keep the generated kubeconfig file safe because it contains sensitive data such as the token and user details that are used to access your cluster. Store the file in a non-public location and consider using a password management application or encrypted format.

Now that you have your kubeconfig file for authentication, you will set up the port-forward to access the Management Console.

First, identify the ingress-nginx-controller service from the tvk namespace. You can do this by running the following command to list services in the tvk namespace:

  1. kubectl get svc -n tvk

The output looks similar to the following:

Output
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE k8s-triliovault-admission-webhook ClusterIP 10.245.202.17 <none> 443/TCP 13m k8s-triliovault-ingress-nginx-controller NodePort 10.245.192.140 <none> 80:32448/TCP,443:32588/TCP 13m k8s-triliovault-ingress-nginx-controller-admission ClusterIP 10.3.20.89 <none> 443/TCP 13m k8s-triliovault-web ClusterIP 10.245.214.13 <none> 80/TCP 13m k8s-triliovault-web-backend ClusterIP 10.245.10.221 <none> 80/TCP 13m triliovault-operator-k8s-triliovault-operator-webhook-service ClusterIP 10.245.186.59 <none> 443/TCP 16m

Search for the k8s-triliovault-ingress-nginx-controller line, and notice that it listens on port 80 in the PORT(s) column.

The TrilioVault ingress service can be configured with NodePort or LoadBalancer, which you’ll see in the TYPE column. If it’s set to NodePort, then you’ll need to make sure that the domain is accessible. If you are using NodePort to access the TVK Management Console, the TrilioVault ingress service won’t be able to connect directly to the external network without resolving the domain name that is used to access the TVK Console. To solve this problem, you’ll add the IP address and domain name entry in the etc/hosts file to resolve the domain name to the IP.

To do this, open the /etc/hosts file for editing and add this entry:

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 demo-tutorial.tvk-doks.com

demo-tutorial.tvk-doks.com is the domain name set for the TrilioVault ingress Controller service. You will use this domain to access the TVK Management Console.

Save and close the file.

Next, create the port-forward for the TVK ingress controller service:

  1. kubectl port-forward svc/k8s-triliovault-ingress-nginx-controller 8080:80 -n tvk &

You can now access the console in your web browser by navigating to: http://demo-tutorial.tvk-doks.com:8080. When asked for the kubeconfig file, please select the one that you created in this section.

Note: TVK uses the kubeconfig file to generate a token for authentication. It does not store the user details present in the kubeconfig file.

In this step, you set up access to the TVK management console. For more information about the console’s available features, please take a look at the TVK Web Management Console official documentation.

In the next step, you will define TrilioVault’s storage backend, which is called a target.

Step 4 — Creating a TrilioVault Target to Store Backups

TrilioVault needs to know where to store your backups, which is referred to as a target. The following target types are supported: S3 and NFS. This tutorial uses the S3 storage type. More information is available in the Backup Target section in TVK Documentation.

To access S3 storage, each target needs to know the bucket’s credentials, which are stored in a secret. In this step, you will create a TrilioVault target for backups and a secret to store your bucket’s credentials.

To get started, you will create the Kubernetes secret containing your target S3 bucket credentials. Using nano or your favorite text editor, create a file called trilio-s3-target-secret and add the following code, making sure to replace the highlighted values with your DigitalOcean Spaces access key and secret key:

trilio-s3-target-secret.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: trilio-s3-target-secret
  namespace: tvk
type: Opaque
stringData:
  accessKey: your_bucket_access_key
  secretKey: your_bucket_secret_key

The secret name is trilio-s3-target-secret. This will be referenced in the spec.objectStoreCredentials.credentialSecret field of the target manifest you’ll create next. The secret can be in the same namespace where TrilioVault was installed (defaults to tvk) or in another namespace of your choice. (Just be sure that the namespace you use is correctly referenced.)

Save and close the file.

To apply this manifest and create the secret, run the following command:

  1. kubectl apply -f trilio-s3-target-secret.yaml -n tvk

Note: Alternatively, you can create the secret by running the following command, replacing the placeholder values with your DigtalOcean bucket access key and secret key:

  1. kubectl create secret generic trilio-s3-target-secret \
  2. --namespace=tvk \
  3. --from-literal=accessKey="your_bucket_access_key" \
  4. --from-literal=secretKey="your_bucket_secret_key"

Your output will look like this:

Output
secret/trilio-s3-target-secret created

Next, you’ll create a manifest for the target. Create a new file called trilio-s3-target.yaml and add the following code block. Replace the highlighted values for bucketName, region, and url with information about your DigitalOcean bucket, which you can find on your bucket’s control panel.

trilio-s3-target.yaml
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: Target
metadata:
  name: trilio-s3-target
  namespace: tvk
spec:
  type: ObjectStore
  vendor: Other
  enableBrowsing: true
  objectStoreCredentials:
    bucketName: your_bucket_name
    region: your_bucket_region           # e.g.: nyc1 or us-east-1
    url: https://nyc1.digitaloceanspaces.com      # update the region to match your bucket
    credentialSecret:
      name: trilio-s3-target-secret
      namespace: tvk
  thresholdCapacity: 10Gi

Here is an explanation for the above configuration:

  • spec.type: Type of target for backup storage (S3 is ObjectStore).
  • spec.vendor: Third-party storage vendor hosting the target (for DigitalOcean Spaces, you’ll need to use Other).
  • spec.enableBrowsing: Enable browsing for the target.
  • spec.objectStoreCredentials: Defines required credentials (via credentialSecret) to access the S3 storage, as well as other parameters such as bucket region and name.
  • spec.thresholdCapacity: Maximum threshold capacity to store backup data.

Note that the credentialSecret name matches the secret you just created.

Save and close the manifest file.

Now, create the target object using kubectl:

  1. kubectl apply -f trilio-s3-target.yaml -n tvk

Your output will look like this:

Output
target.triliovault.trilio.io/trilio-s3-target created

TrilioVault will spawn a worker job named trilio-s3-target-validator, which is responsible for validating your S3 bucket (such as availability, permissions, and so on). If the job finishes successfully, the bucket is considered to be healthy, or available, and the trilio-s3-target-validator job resource is deleted afterward.

Now, check if the target resource created earlier is healthy by running the following command and passing in the name of the target:

  1. kubectl get target trilio-s3-target -n tvk

The output will look similar to this:

Output
NAME TYPE THRESHOLD CAPACITY VENDOR STATUS BROWSING ENABLED trilio-s3-target ObjectStore 10Gi Other Available true

The STATUS column value is Available, meaning that the target is in a healthy state.

You can also validate the target status using the TVK Management Console. After logging in, select Backup & Recovery and then click Targets to view.

Screencapture showing the list of targets

If the status shows as Available, you have successfully configured the S3 target object.

However, if there’s an issue in the configuration, the status will show Unavailable. In such cases, the S3 target validator job is left up and running so that you can inspect the logs and find the possible issue. In case the target object fails to become healthy, you can inspect the logs from the trilio-s3-target-validator Pod to find the issue.

To check the logs, you’ll begin by finding the target validator:

  1. kubectl get pods -n tvk | grep trilio-s3-target-validator

The output will look similar to this, but with a unique identifier:

Output
trilio-s3-target-validator-tio99a-6lz4q 1/1 Running 0 104s

Using the target validator from the previous output, fetch the data logs using the following command:

  1. kubectl logs pod/trilio-s3-target-validator-tio99a-6lz4q -n tvk

The output will look similar to this (notice the exception as an example):

Output
... INFO:root:2021-11-24 09:06:50.595166: waiting for mount operation to complete. INFO:root:2021-11-24 09:06:52.595772: waiting for mount operation to complete. ERROR:root:2021-11-24 09:06:54.598541: timeout exceeded, not able to mount within time. ERROR:root:/triliodata is not a mountpoint. We can't proceed further. Traceback (most recent call last): File "/opt/tvk/datastore-attacher/mount_utility/mount_by_target_crd/mount_datastores.py", line 56, in main utilities.mount_datastore(metadata, datastore.get(constants.DATASTORE_TYPE), base_path) File "/opt/tvk/datastore-attacher/mount_utility/utilities.py", line 377, in mount_datastore mount_s3_datastore(metadata_list, base_path) File "/opt/tvk/datastore-attacher/mount_utility/utilities.py", line 306, in mount_s3_datastore wait_until_mount(base_path) File "/opt/tvk/datastore-attacher/mount_utility/utilities.py", line 328, in wait_until_mount base_path)) Exception: /triliodata is not a mountpoint. We can't proceed further. ...

For additional help debugging, or if you encounter issues while creating the target, check the Troubleshooting section of the documentation, or contact support.

In this step, you configured a TrilioVault target and created a secret to provide your bucket’s credentials. Next, you will perform backup and restore operations, thus covering a disaster recovery scenario.

Step 5 — Backing up and Restoring the Kubernetes Cluster

In this step, you will perform a backup of your Kubernetes cluster. You will then delete the namespaces and use the backup to restore all the important applications to those namespaces. You will perform a cluster restore operation via location from the target. The same flow applies when you need to perform cluster migration.

The main idea here is to perform a complete cluster backup by including all-important namespaces, which hold your essential applications and configurations. It is not a full cluster backup and restore, but rather a multi-namespace backup and restore operation. In practice, this is all that is needed because everything is namespaced in Kubernetes.

Creating the Kubernetes Cluster Backup

In this section, you will create a multi-namespace backup using a ClusterBackupPlan CRD that targets all-important namespaces from your Kubernetes cluster.

To start with the cluster backup operation, you will create a ClusterBackupPlan, which defines a set of resources to backup. The specification includes the backup schedule, backup target, and the resources to backup. Resources can be defined in the form of Helm release, Operators, or just bare Kubernetes API resources.

Using your text editor, create a ClusterBackupPlan manifest file called k8s-cluster-backup-plan.yaml. Add the following code block, which is a typical manifest for targeting multiple namespaces:

k8s-cluster-backup-plan.yaml
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: ClusterBackupPlan
metadata:
  name: k8s-cluster-backup-plan
  namespace: tvk
spec:
  backupConfig:
    target:
      name: trilio-s3-target
      namespace: tvk
  backupComponents:
    - namespace: wordpress
    - namespace: mysqldb
    - namespace: etcd

Make sure the namespaces listed in the backupComponents are present on the cluster.

You may notice that kube-system (or other Kubernetes cluster-related namespaces) is not included in backupComponents. Usually, those are not required unless there is a special case requiring some settings to be persisted at that level.

Save and close the file.

Now, create the ClusterBackupPlan resource using kubectl:

  1. kubectl apply -f k8s-cluster-backup-plan.yaml

Your output will look like this:

Output
clusterbackupplan.triliovault.trilio.io/k8s-cluster-backup-plan created

Now, inspect the ClusterBackupPlan status using kubectl:

  1. kubectl get clusterbackupplan k8s-cluster-backup-plan -n tvk

The output looks similar to this:

Output
NAME TARGET ... STATUS k8s-cluster-backup-plan trilio-s3-target ... Available

Check the STATUS column value, which should be set to Available.

You can also see the ClusterBackupPlan status using TVK Management Console. After logging in, select Backup & Recovery and then select Backupplans to view.

Screencapture showing the status of the Cluster Backup Plan

At this point, you have created a ClusterBackupPlan. Next, you will create a ClusterBackup, which is a configuration pointing to the actual ClusterBackupPlan in spec.clusterBackupPlan.name. ClusterBackupPlan will always remain the same; you can create multiple backups by refreshing that into multiple ClusterBackup manifest files.

Now, create a ClusterBackup manifest file called k8s-cluster-backup.yaml. Add the following code block:

k8s-cluster-backup.yaml
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: ClusterBackup
metadata:
  name: k8s-cluster-backup
  namespace: tvk
spec:
  type: Full
  clusterBackupPlan:
    name: k8s-cluster-backup-plan
    namespace: tvk

Save and close the file.

Finally, create the ClusterBackup resources, using kubectl:

  1. kubectl apply -f k8s-cluster-backup.yaml

By applying the ClusterBackup manifest, the backup process will be triggered.

Your output will look like the following:

Output
clusterbackup.triliovault.trilio.io/k8s-cluster-backup created

Now, inspect the ClusterBackup status, using kubectl:

  1. kubectl get clusterbackup k8s-cluster-backup -n tvk

The output looks similar to :

Output
NAME BACKUPPLAN BACKUP TYPE STATUS ... PERCENTAGE COMPLETE k8s-cluster-backup k8s-cluster-backup-plan Full Available ... 100

Check the STATUS column value, which should be set to Available, as well as the PERCENTAGE COMPLETE set to 100.

You can also see the cluster backup status using the TVK Management Console. From the main dashboard, select Monitoring and then TrilioVault Monitoring from the left pane.

Screencapture showing the status of the Cluster Backup

It will take a while for the full cluster backup to finish, depending on how many namespaces, associated resources, and data present on the PVCs are involved in the process. If the output looks like the above, then all the important application namespaces included in the backup plan were backed up successfully.

You can also open the web console main dashboard and inspect the multi-namespace backup. From the main dashboard, select Backup & Recovery and then Namespaces. On the upper right, you can toggle between a list view a honeycomb structure:

Screencapture showing the honeycomb view of the namespaces

In the honeycomb view, all the important namespaces that were part of the backup are highlighted.

In this section, you created a cluster backup. In the next sections, you will delete the namespaces, and then restore them from the backup.

Deleting the Namespaces

Now that you have a cluster backup, you’ll delete your namespaces so that you can restore them from the backup in a later step. To delete your namespaces, run the following commands, replacing the highlighted namespaces as needed.

  1. kubectl delete ns wordpress
  2. kubectl delete ns mysqldb
  3. kubectl delete ns etcd

Your output will look like this:

Output
namespace "wordpress" deleted namespace "mysqldb" deleted namespace "etcd" deleted

Now that your namespaces are deleted, you’ll restore the backup.

Restoring the Backup with the Management Console

In this section, you will use the TVK web console to restore all the important applications from your backup. The restore process will validate the target where the backup is stored. TVK will connect to the target repository to pull the backup files using datamover and metamover pods. TVK will create the Kubernetes application that was pulled from the backup storage.

To get started with the restore operation, you’ll first need to create your target manifest again. Since the existing namespaces were deleted, the target custom resources created in those namespaces were also deleted. This means that there is no target custom resource present on the cluster.

Configure the TVK target as described in Creating a TrilioVault Target to Store Backups, and point it to the same S3 bucket where your backup data is located. Make sure that target browsing is enabled.

Then, navigate to Backup & Recovery and then Targets with Namespace: All selected:

Screencapture showing the TVK target list

To list the available backups, click the Actions button on the right and then select the Launch Browser option from the drop-down menu.

Screencapture showing the Actions button drop-down menu

For this to work, the target must have the enableBrowsing flag set to true.

Selecting Launch Browser will bring up the Target Browser:

Screencapture showing the TVK target browser

Now, click on the k8s-cluster-backup-plan item from the list of backup plans. A sub-window will appear on the right showing information about the backup, including its status.

Click and expand the k8s-cluster-backup item from the right sub-window:

Screencapture showing the TVK Cluster Backup item

To start the restore process, click on the Restore button.

Next, you’ll see a pop-up window with some options for your restore process. To understand the different options for the restore process, you can find details about each flag in the Restore Flags section of the TrilioVault documentation.

Screencapture showing the restore operation options

Enter a Restore Name for the restore custom resource creation. Once you provide the name, you can map all the important namespaces from the backup to the namespaces where you want to restore the data. In this case, select Namespace Configuration in the configuration pane and then select the desired namespaces.

Screencapture showing namespace configuration options

Once the restore process has started, you can monitor its progress. A progress window will be displayed similar to the following:

Screencapture showing the cluster restore progress pane

After a while, when the progress is Completed, then the multi-namespace restore operation has completed successfully.

In this section, you restored your backup using the Management Console. In the next section, you will confirm that the restore operation was successful.

Checking the DOKS Cluster Applications State

In this section, you will make sure that the restore operation was successful and that the applications are accessible after the restore. To begin, run the following commands to retrieve all of the objects related to the application from the namespaces listed:

  1. kubectl get all --namespace wordpress
  2. kubectl get all --namespace mysqldb
  3. kubectl get all --namespace etcd

Your output will look similar to the following for each application:

Output
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE pod/wordpress-5dcf55f8fc-72h9q 1/1 Running 1 2m21s pod/wordpress-mariadb-0 1/1 Running 1 2m20s NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE service/wordpress LoadBalancer 10.120.1.38 34.71.102.21 80:32402/TCP,443:31522/TCP 2m21s service/wordpress-mariadb ClusterIP 10.120.7.213 <none> 3306/TCP 2m21s NAME READY UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE deployment.apps/wordpress 1/1 1 1 2m21s NAME DESIRED CURRENT READY AGE replicaset.apps/wordpress-5dcf55f8fc 1 1 1 2m21s NAME READY AGE statefulset.apps/wordpress-mariadb 1/1 2m21s

The output details show that 1/1 container of the WordPress application deployment is in the READY state. Also, the WordPress application pods and WordPress MariaDB pods have 1/1 containers in the RUNNING state. These statuses confirm that the application has been restored successfully.

In the next step, you will learn to perform scheduled (or automatic) backups for your DOKS cluster applications.

Step 6 — Scheduling Backups

Creating backups automatically based on a schedule is a very useful feature to have. It allows you to rewind time and restore the system to a previous working state if something goes wrong. By default, TrilioVault creates three scheduled policies: daily, weekly, and monthly.

In the TVK console, you can view the default policies under Backup & Recovery, then Scheduling Policies:

Screencapture showing the default scheduled policies in the TVK management console

Scheduling policies can be used for either BackupPlan or ClusterBackupPlan CRDs.

Create a manifest file called scheduled-backup-every-5min.yaml and add the following code, which is a typical custom schedule policy CRD:

scheduled-backup-every-5min.yaml
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: Policy
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
metadata:
  name: scheduled-backup-every-5min
  namespace: tvk
spec:
  type: Schedule
  scheduleConfig:
    schedule:
      - "*/5 * * * *" # trigger every 5 minutes

This manifest creates a scheduled backup policy called scheduled-backup-every-5min under the tvk namespace. It will be used to trigger a scheduled backup every five minutes depending on the BackupPlan objects.

After creating the manifest, you can use it to create the schedule Policy:

  1. kubectl apply -f scheduled-backup-every-5min.yaml

Your output will look like this:

Output
policy.triliovault.trilio.io/scheduled-backup-every-5min created

To apply the scheduling policy, you’ll add it to a ClusterBackupPlan CRD. Open the ClusterBackupPlan CRD that you created in Step 5 and add the highlighted lines:

k8s-cluster-backup-plan
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: ClusterBackupPlan
metadata:
  name: k8s-cluster-backup-plan
  namespace: tvk
spec:
  backupConfig:
    target:
      name: trilio-s3-target
      namespace: tvk
    schedulePolicy:
      fullBackupPolicy:
        name: scheduled-backup-every-5min
        namespace: tvk
  backupComponents:
    - namespace: wordpress
    - namespace: mysqldb
    - namespace: etcd

The ClusterBackupPlan CRD references the Policy CRD defined earlier via the spec.backupConfig.schedulePolicy field. You can have separate policies created for full or incremental backups, hence the fullBackupPolicy or incrementalBackupPolicy can be specified in the spec.

Save and close your file.

In this step, you scheduled backups and added a scheduling policy to a ClusterBackupPlan. In the next step, you will learn how to set up a retention policy for your backups.

Step 7 — Creating a Backup Retention Policy

In this step, you will create a backup retention policy, which determines the cadence of your backups. Retention policies are important because storage is finite and can become expensive if too many objects are retained.

The retention policy allows you to define the number of backups to retain and the cadence to delete backups as per compliance requirements. The retention policy CRD provides a YAML specification to define the number of backups to retain in terms of days, weeks, months, years, latest, and so on.

TVK also has a default retention policy, which you can view in the TVK console under Backup & Recovery, then Rentention Policies:

Screencapture showing the default retention policy in the TVK management console

Retention policies can be used for either BackupPlan or ClusterBackupPlan CRDs. Create a new file called sample-retention-policy.yaml and add the following lines:

sample-retention-policy.yaml
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: Policy
metadata:
  name: sample-retention-policy
spec:
  type: Retention
  retentionConfig:
    latest: 2
    weekly: 1
    dayOfWeek: Wednesday
    monthly: 1
    dateOfMonth: 15
    monthOfYear: March
    yearly: 1

This is a typical Policy manifest for the Retention type. Here’s an explanation for the above configuration:

  • spec.type: Defines the policy type: Retention or Schedule.
  • spec.retentionConfig: Describes the retention configuration, such as the interval to use for backup retention and how many to retain.
  • spec.retentionConfig.latest: Maximum number of latest backups to be retained.
  • spec.retentionConfig.weekly: Maximum number of backups to be retained in a week.
  • spec.retentionConfig.dayOfWeek: Day of the week to maintain weekly backups.
  • spec.retentionConfig.monthly: Maximum number of backups to be retained in a month.
  • spec.retentionConfig.dateOfMonth: Date of the month to maintain monthly backups.
  • spec.retentionConfig.monthOfYear: Month of the backup to retain for yearly backups.
  • spec.retentionConfig.yearly: Maximum number of backups to be retained in a year.

In the retention policy configured above, the backup policy would retain one backup each Wednesday on a weekly basis; one backup on the 15th day on a monthly basis; and one backup every March on a yearly basis. Overall, the 2 most recent backups will be available.

The basic flow for creating a retention policy resource is the same as for scheduled backups. You need a BackupPlan or a ClusterBackupPlan CRD defined to reference the retention policy, and then a Backup or ClusterBackup object to trigger the process.

To apply the retention policy, open your ClusterBackupPlan CRD and update it to look like the following:

k8s-cluster-backup-plan
apiVersion: triliovault.trilio.io/v1
kind: ClusterBackupPlan
metadata:
  name: k8s-cluster-backup-plan
  namespace: tvk
spec:
  backupConfig:
    target:
      name: trilio-s3-target
      namespace: tvk
    retentionPolicy:
      fullBackupPolicy:
        name: sample-retention-policy
        namespace: tvk
  backupComponents:
    - namespace: wordpress
    - namespace: mysqldb
    - namespace: etcd

The manifest uses a retentionPolicy field to reference the policy in question. You can have a backup plan that has both types of policies set so that it can perform scheduled backups, as well as deal with retention strategies.

In this step, you set retention policies for your backups.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you installed TrilioVault for Kubernetes and used it to back up and restore a cluster. You also scheduled backups and configured retention policies.

You accomplished basic tasks for cluster backup with TrilioVault for Kubernetes, so you are now equipped to explore other topics and materials with the following content from TrilioVault’s product docs:

For more on Kubernetes, check out the product documentation for DigitalOcean Kubernetes (DOKS) and additional tutorials.


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