How To Install MySQL on Ubuntu 20.04

Updated on July 11, 2022
How To Install MySQL on Ubuntu 20.04
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Ubuntu 20.04


MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.

This tutorial will go over how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server. By completing it, you will have a working relational database that you can use to build your next website or application.

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To follow this tutorial, you will need:

Step 1 — Installing MySQL

On Ubuntu 20.04, you can install MySQL using the APT package repository. At the time of this writing, the version of MySQL available in the default Ubuntu repository is version 8.0.27.

To install it, update the package index on your server if you’ve not done so recently:

  1. sudo apt update

Then install the mysql-server package:

  1. sudo apt install mysql-server

Ensure that the server is running using the systemctl start command:

  1. sudo systemctl start mysql.service

These commands will install and start MySQL, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.

Step 2 — Configuring MySQL

For fresh installations of MySQL, you’ll want to run the DBMS’s included security script. This script changes some of the less secure default options for things like remote root logins and sample users.

Warning: As of July 2022, an error will occur when you run the mysql_secure_installation script without some further configuration. The reason is that this script will attempt to set a password for the installation’s root MySQL account but, by default on Ubuntu installations, this account is not configured to connect using a password.

Prior to July 2022, this script would silently fail after attempting to set the root account password and continue on with the rest of the prompts. However, as of this writing the script will return the following error after you enter and confirm a password:

... Failed! Error: SET PASSWORD has no significance for user 'root'@'localhost' as the authentication method used doesn't store authentication data in the MySQL server. Please consider using ALTER USER instead if you want to change authentication parameters. New password:

This will lead the script into a recursive loop which you can only get out of by closing your terminal window.

Because the mysql_secure_installation script performs a number of other actions that are useful for keeping your MySQL installation secure, it’s still recommended that you run it before you begin using MySQL to manage your data. To avoid entering this recursive loop, though, you’ll need to first adjust how your root MySQL user authenticates.

First, open up the MySQL prompt:

  1. sudo mysql

Then run the following ALTER USER command to change the root user’s authentication method to one that uses a password. The following example changes the authentication method to mysql_native_password:

  1. ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';

After making this change, exit the MySQL prompt:

  1. exit

Following that, you can run the mysql_secure_installation script without issue.

Once the security script completes, you can then reopen MySQL and change the root user’s authentication method back to the default, auth_socket. To authenticate as the root MySQL user using a password, run this command:

  1. mysql -u root -p

Then go back to using the default authentication method using this command:

  1. ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH auth_socket;

This will mean that you can once again connect to MySQL as your root user using the sudo mysql command.

Run the security script with sudo:

  1. sudo mysql_secure_installation

This will take you through a series of prompts where you can make some changes to your MySQL installation’s security options. The first prompt will ask whether you’d like to set up the Validate Password Plugin, which can be used to test the password strength of new MySQL users before deeming them valid.

If you elect to set up the Validate Password Plugin, any MySQL user you create that authenticates with a password will be required to have a password that satisfies the policy you select. The strongest policy level — which you can select by entering 2 — will require passwords to be at least eight characters long and include a mix of uppercase, lowercase, numeric, and special characters:

Securing the MySQL server deployment. Connecting to MySQL using a blank password. VALIDATE PASSWORD COMPONENT can be used to test passwords and improve security. It checks the strength of password and allows the users to set only those passwords which are secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD component? Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: Y There are three levels of password validation policy: LOW Length >= 8 MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary file Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 2

Regardless of whether you choose to set up the Validate Password Plugin, the next prompt will be to set a password for the MySQL root user. Enter and then confirm a secure password of your choice:

Please set the password for root here. New password: Re-enter new password:

Note that even though you’ve set a password for the root MySQL user, this user is not currently configured to authenticate with a password when connecting to the MySQL shell.

If you used the Validate Password Plugin, you’ll receive feedback on the strength of your new password. Then the script will ask if you want to continue with the password you just entered or if you want to enter a new one. Assuming you’re satisfied with the strength of the password you just entered, enter Y to continue the script:

Estimated strength of the password: 100 Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y

From there, you can press Y and then ENTER to accept the defaults for all the subsequent questions. This will remove some anonymous users and the test database, disable remote root logins, and load these new rules so that MySQL immediately respects the changes you have made.

Once the script completes, your MySQL installation will be secured. You can now move on to creating a dedicated database user with the MySQL client.

Step 3 — Creating a Dedicated MySQL User and Granting Privileges

Upon installation, MySQL creates a root user account which you can use to manage your database. This user has full privileges over the MySQL server, meaning it has complete control over every database, table, user, and so on. Because of this, it’s best to avoid using this account outside of administrative functions. This step outlines how to use the root MySQL user to create a new user account and grant it privileges.

In Ubuntu systems running MySQL 5.7 (and later versions), the root MySQL user is set to authenticate using the auth_socket plugin by default rather than with a password. This plugin requires that the name of the operating system user that invokes the MySQL client matches the name of the MySQL user specified in the command, so you must invoke mysql with sudo privileges to gain access to the root MySQL user:

  1. sudo mysql

Note: If you installed MySQL with another tutorial and enabled password authentication for root, you will need to use a different command to access the MySQL shell. The following will run your MySQL client with regular user privileges, and you will only gain administrator privileges within the database by authenticating:

  1. mysql -u root -p

Once you have access to the MySQL prompt, you can create a new user with a CREATE USER statement. These follow this general syntax:

  1. CREATE USER 'username'@'host' IDENTIFIED WITH authentication_plugin BY 'password';

After CREATE USER, you specify a username. This is immediately followed by an @ sign and then the hostname from which this user will connect. If you only plan to access this user locally from your Ubuntu server, you can specify localhost. Wrapping both the username and host in single quotes isn’t always necessary, but doing so can help to prevent errors.

You have several options when it comes to choosing your user’s authentication plugin. The auth_socket plugin mentioned previously can be convenient, as it provides strong security without requiring valid users to enter a password to access the database. But it also prevents remote connections, which can complicate things when external programs need to interact with MySQL.

As an alternative, you can leave out the WITH authentication_plugin portion of the syntax entirely to have the user authenticate with MySQL’s default plugin, caching_sha2_password. The MySQL documentation recommends this plugin for users who want to log in with a password due to its strong security features.

Run the following command to create a user that authenticates with caching_sha2_password. Be sure to change sammy to your preferred username and password to a strong password of your choosing:

  1. CREATE USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

Note: There is a known issue with some versions of PHP that causes problems with caching_sha2_password. If you plan to use this database with a PHP application — phpMyAdmin, for example — you may want to create a user that will authenticate with the older, though still secure, mysql_native_password plugin instead:

  1. CREATE USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';

If you aren’t sure, you can always create a user that authenticates with caching_sha2_plugin and then ALTER it later on with this command:

  1. ALTER USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';

After creating your new user, you can grant them the appropriate privileges. The general syntax for granting user privileges is as follows:

  1. GRANT PRIVILEGE ON database.table TO 'username'@'host';

The PRIVILEGE value in this example syntax defines what actions the user is allowed to perform on the specified database and table. You can grant multiple privileges to the same user in one command by separating each with a comma. You can also grant a user privileges globally by entering asterisks (*) in place of the database and table names. In SQL, asterisks are special characters used to represent “all” databases or tables.

To illustrate, the following command grants a user global privileges to CREATE, ALTER, and DROP databases, tables, and users, as well as the power to INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE data from any table on the server. It also grants the user the ability to query data with SELECT, create foreign keys with the REFERENCES keyword, and perform FLUSH operations with the RELOAD privilege. However, you should only grant users the permissions they need, so feel free to adjust your own user’s privileges as necessary.

You can find the full list of available privileges in the official MySQL documentation.

Run this GRANT statement, replacing sammy with your own MySQL user’s name, to grant these privileges to your user:


Note that this statement also includes WITH GRANT OPTION. This will allow your MySQL user to grant any permissions that it has to other users on the system.

Warning: Some users may want to grant their MySQL user the ALL PRIVILEGES privilege, which will provide them with broad superuser privileges akin to the root user’s privileges, like so:

  1. GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'sammy'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;

Such broad privileges should not be granted lightly, as anyone with access to this MySQL user will have complete control over every database on the server.

Following this, it’s good practice to run the FLUSH PRIVILEGES command. This will free up any memory that the server cached as a result of the preceding CREATE USER and GRANT statements:


Then you can exit the MySQL client:

  1. exit

In the future, to log in as your new MySQL user, you’d use a command like the following:

  1. mysql -u sammy -p

The -p flag will cause the MySQL client to prompt you for your MySQL user’s password in order to authenticate.

Finally, let’s test the MySQL installation.

Step 4 — Testing MySQL

Regardless of how you installed it, MySQL should have started running automatically. To test this, check its status.

  1. systemctl status mysql.service

You’ll see output similar to the following:

● mysql.service - MySQL Community Server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Tue 2020-04-21 12:56:48 UTC; 6min ago Main PID: 10382 (mysqld) Status: "Server is operational" Tasks: 39 (limit: 1137) Memory: 370.0M CGroup: /system.slice/mysql.service └─10382 /usr/sbin/mysqld

If MySQL isn’t running, you can start it with sudo systemctl start mysql.

For an additional check, you can try connecting to the database using the mysqladmin tool, which is a client that lets you run administrative commands. For example, this command says to connect as a MySQL user named sammy (-u sammy), prompt for a password (-p), and return the version. Be sure to change sammy to the name of your dedicated MySQL user, and enter that user’s password when prompted:

  1. sudo mysqladmin -p -u sammy version

You should see output similar to this:

mysqladmin Ver 8.0.19-0ubuntu5 for Linux on x86_64 ((Ubuntu)) Copyright (c) 2000, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Server version 8.0.19-0ubuntu5 Protocol version 10 Connection Localhost via UNIX socket UNIX socket /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock Uptime: 10 min 44 sec Threads: 2 Questions: 25 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 149 Flush tables: 3 Open tables: 69 Queries per second avg: 0.038

This means MySQL is up and running.


You now have a basic MySQL setup installed on your server. Here are a few examples of next steps you can take:

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hi! i write do.co/docs now, but i used to be the senior tech editor publishing tutorials here in the community.

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Hello Mark, Thanks for the share of this tutorial, it helped me a lot, First time I do this without any issues and very clear all your steps on this article. Appreciate it. Thank You.


How I can install MySQL 5? This is very important to me for using Magento 1 version.

Thank you.

# mysql

ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root’@‘localhost’ (using password: NO)

# mysql -u root

ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user ‘root’@‘localhost’ (using password: NO)

# systemctl stop mysql.service
# mysql

ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can’t connect to local MySQL server through socket ‘/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock’ (2)

i like it. This is so clear. Thanks you so much.

Do anybody else have this issue upon running sud apt install mysql-server on a fresh droplet?

Setting up mysql-server-8.0 (8.0.32-0ubuntu0.22.10.2) ...
update-alternatives: using /etc/mysql/mysql.cnf to provide /etc/mysql/my.cnf (my.cnf) in auto mode
Renaming removed key_buffer and myisam-recover options (if present)
mysqld will log errors to /var/log/mysql/error.log
2023-03-17T17:42:33.732349Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-011065] [Server] Unable to determine if daemon is running: Invalid argument (rc=0).
2023-03-17T17:42:33.733195Z 0 [ERROR] [MY-010946] [Server] Failed to start mysqld daemon. Check mysqld error log.
Warning: Unable to start the server.
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mysql.service → /lib/systemd/system/mysql.service.
Job for mysql.service failed.
See "systemctl status mysql.service" and "journalctl -xeu mysql.service" for details.
invoke-rc.d: initscript mysql, action "start" failed.
● mysql.service - MySQL Community Server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; preset: enabled)
     Active: activating (auto-restart) (Result: oom-kill) since Fri 2023-03-17 17:42:36 UTC; 52ms ago
    Process: 2883 ExecStartPre=/usr/share/mysql/mysql-systemd-start pre (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
    Process: 2891 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/mysqld (code=killed, signal=KILL)
   Main PID: 2891 (code=killed, signal=KILL)
     Status: "Server startup in progress"
        CPU: 624ms
dpkg: error processing package mysql-server-8.0 (--configure):
 installed mysql-server-8.0 package post-installation script subprocess returned error exit status 1
Setting up libcgi-pm-perl (4.54-1) ...
Setting up libhtml-template-perl (2.97-2) ...
dpkg: dependency problems prevent configuration of mysql-server:
 mysql-server depends on mysql-server-8.0; however:
  Package mysql-server-8.0 is not configured yet.

dpkg: error processing package mysql-server (--configure):
 dependency problems - leaving unconfigured
Setting up libcgi-fast-perl (1:2.15-1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.10.2-2) ...
No apport report written because the error message indicates its a followup error from a previous failure.
              Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.36-0ubuntu4) ...
Errors were encountered while processing:
needrestart is being skipped since dpkg has failed
E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)

I don’t see where I went wrong in copying-pasting 2 commands

Note, this will not work on the $4 instance but works fine on the $6 ones. If you have a $4 and upgrade to $6 it will work as well.

I recently ran into the issue of not being able to log in after Step 2- mysql_secure_installation in WSL2

sudo mysql
ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
sudo mysql_secure_installation 
# various prompts within this step

mysql -u root -p

mysql -u root -p
Enter password: 
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock' (13)

What worked was using TCP connection to connect rather than a socket connection

mysql -u root -p --protocol=tcp

OR use sudo

sudo mysql -u root -p
[sudo] password for vivek:  <---- the sudo user password
Enter password: <---- mysql password

“sudo mysql_secure_installation” on a brand-new Ubuntu 20.04 provided by Digital Ocean gave the following error after attempting to set the root password:

“Failed! Error: SET PASSWORD has no significance for user ‘root’@‘localhost’ as the authentication method used doesn’t store authentication data in the MySQL server. Please consider using ALTER USER instead if you want to change authentication parameters.”

So to workaround this, use CTRL-C to cancel the mysql_secure_installation script and do the following:

sudo mysql
ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password by '<rootpassword>';

Then you can run “sudo mysql_secure_installation” again and this time, decline the option to change the root password so you can perform the other steps of the script.

Note that once this is set, you’ll access mysql with the password, like so, instead of just “sudo mysql”

mysql -u root -p

This will not work on a server with 512mb RAM. To fix, add some swap space.

But you can add some swap fairly easily. I used the instructions at this link, but there were some other good simple tutorials if this no longer works: https://salslab.com/a/running-mysql-on-a-vps-with-512mb-ram/

Great Article it worked for me

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