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How to Manage and Monitor Docker Containers with dry on Ubuntu 16.04

PostedApril 25, 2018 6.9k views Docker Ubuntu 16.04

Introduction

dry Monitoring GIF

dry is a simple but extensive terminal application built to interact with Docker containers and their images. Using dry removes the repetition involved when executing routine Docker Engine commands, and also provides a more visual alternative to the native Docker CLI.

dry has the ability to quickly start and stop containers, safely or forcefully remove remove Docker images, continuously monitor real-time container processes, and access the outputs of Docker's info, inspect, history, and log commands.

Most commands that can be executed through the official Docker Engine CLI are available more readily in dry, with the same behavior and results. dry additionally has Docker Swarm functionality, providing an outlet to monitor and manage multi-host container setups.

In this tutorial, we will install dry and explore some of its most useful features:

  • Interacting with Docker containers, images, and networks,
  • Monitoring Docker containers, and
  • Optionally, interacting with Docker Swarm nodes and services.

Prerequisites

To follow this tutorial, you will need:

Step 1 — Installing dry

First, we need to install dry on the Docker server. The latest version of the dry binaries are available on dry's GitHub release page.

Download the latest version of the dry-linux-amd64 binary, which is v0.9-beta.3 at publication time.

  • wget https://github.com/moncho/dry/releases/download/v0.9-beta.3/dry-linux-amd64

Next, move and rename the new binary file from dry-linux-amd64 to /usr/local/bin/dry.

  • sudo mv dry-linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/dry

/usr/local/bin is the standard location used to store binaries for programs local to a server. Moving the dry binary to that directory also gives us the ability to invoke dry on the command line from anywhere within the server because that directory is included in the shell's $PATH environment variable.

Change the binary's permissions with chmod to allow you to execute it.

  • sudo chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/dry

You can test that dry is now accessible and working correctly by running the program with its -v option.

  • dry -v

This will return the version number and build details:

Version Details Output
dry version 0.9-beta.2, build d4d7a789

Now that dry is set up, let's try using it.

Step 2 — Interacting with Docker Containers

Run dry to bring up its dashboard in your terminal.

  • dry

The top of the dashboard has information on the server and Docker software on it, like the Docker version, the Docker Engine API version, whether the server is a Docker Swarm-enabled worker/manager node, and the hostname and resources of the server.

The bottom of the dashboard has a reference for the navigation keys you can use to access different parts of dry:

Navigation key options
[H]:Help [Q]:Quit | [F1]:Sort [F2]:Toggle Show Containers [F5]:Refresh [%]:Filter | [m]:Monitor mode [2]:Images [3]:Networks [4]:Nodes [5]:Services | [Enter]:Commands

At any time, you can use F5 to refresh dry's display if there's an error with its rendering.

This dashboard itself defaults to the Containers listing when you first start dry. This view lets you see the general state of your host's containers.

If you're using the example Wordpress, MariaDB, and PHPMyAdmin container stack from the prerequisite tutorials, you'll see those three newly composed containers listed:

dry Dashboard Image

Use the up and down arrows on your keyboard to select the Wordpress container, then press ENTER.

This will display some information about the container at the top of the screen, like its port mapping, network links, and network container IP address:

Wordpress Container Statistics
Container Name: wordpress_wordpress_1 ID: f67f9914b57e Status: Up 13 minutes Image: wordpress Created: About an hour ago Command: docker-entrypoint.sh apache2-foreground Port mapping: 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp Network Name: bridge IP Address: 172.17.0.3 Labels 6

When you select a container, the lower center of the screen will also display a new list of selectable options:

  • Fetch logs, which is the equivalent of the Docker Engine command docker logs. This is useful for debugging and troubleshooting errors within containers.

  • Kill container, which you can use if a container is unresponsive and not exiting as it should.

  • Remove container, which you can use to remove unneeded containers cleanly.

Warning: The Kill container and Remove Container options are issued instantly and have no confirmation prompts, so be cautious.

  • Inspect container, which is the equivalent of docker container inspect.

  • Restart, which stops and restarts a container. much quicker than typing out the Docker Engine commands to restart or query the status of a container.

  • Show image history, which lists the commands that were used to build the container's image. These "layers" are generated during the image build process and result from commands/actions provided in a Dockerfile. With this option, we can see how exactly the container has been generated using the base Docker image.

  • Stats + Top, which includes information like CPU usage, memory consumption, inbound and outbound network traffic, file-system operation, total process ID's, and total overall container uptime. It also includes a process list, which is functionally identical to the output of top.

  • Stop, which stops a container. You can use F2 to toggle the containers on the Containers view to include currently stopped and active, and you can restart a stopped container with the Restart option after selecting it.

Press the ESC key to return to the root Containers section of the dashboard. From here, we'll look at the Images section.

Step 3 — Interacting with Docker Images

From the Containers section, press 2 to access the Images section of dry.

Images Section

This section provides easier access to the docker image inspect command. dry has some convenient keyboard shortcuts here as well, which you can see in the navigation bar:

  • CTRL+D for Remove Dangling, "dangling volumes” refers to other container volumes that are no longer referenced by any container, and are thereby redundant. Normally in Docker on the command line this operation would involve the docker volume rm command and the dangling=true flag, plus the target data volumes.
  • CTRL+E for Remove, which is the equivalent of docker rmi , lets you remove images as long as no containers created from that image are still active and running.
  • CTRL+F for Force Remove, which lets you forcefully remove the highlighted image as if using docker rmi --force.
  • I for History, which displays the same data as Show Image History in the Containers section.

So far, we've seen the containers and images sections of dry. The last section to explore is networks.

Step 4 — Interacting with Docker Networks

From the Images section, press 3 to access the Networks section.

Docker Networks Dashboard

This section is ideal for verifying network links and the network configuration of Docker containers.

You can delete a network from Docker with CTRL+E, though you can't remove predefined default Docker networks like bridge. As an example, however, you can try deleting bridge anyway by selecting it with the arrow keys and pressing ENTER. You'll see a long piece of output like this:

Output
. . . "Containers": { "34f8295b39b7c3364d9ceafd4e96194f210f22acc41d938761e1340de7010e05": { "Name": "wordpress_wordpress_db_1", "EndpointID": "68370df8a13b92f3dae2ee72ff769e5bdc00da348ef3e22fa5b8f7e9e979dbd5", "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02", "IPv4Address": "172.17.0.2/16", "IPv6Address": "" }, "e7105685e0e6397fd762949e869095aa4451a26cdacdad7f5e177bde52819c4a": { "Name": "wordpress_wordpress_1", "EndpointID": "44ea3a133d887c5352b8ccf70c94cda9f05891b2db8b99a95096a19d4a504e16", "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:04", "IPv4Address": "172.17.0.4/16", "IPv6Address": "" }, "e7d65c76b50ff03fc50fc374be1fa4bf462e9454f8d50c89973e1e5693eef559": { "Name": "wordpress_phpmyadmin_1", "EndpointID": "7fb1b55dd92034cca1dd65fb0c824e87a9ba7bbc0860cd3ed34744390d670b78", "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:03", "IPv4Address": "172.17.0.3/16", "IPv6Address": "" } }, . . .

The portion of the output above shows the network IP addresses and MAC addresses of the container links and container bridge network. From this, you can verify that all of the containers are members of the bridge network and can communicate, which is a basic indication that the container network is valid.

Use ESC to close the network output. Now that we've looked at the Containers, Images, and Networks sections of dry, let's move on to dry's monitoring functionality.

Step 5 — Monitoring Docker Containers

Press the M key for a quick condensed overview of all of your running containers on the current server/host. This screen can be accessed from any of the root sections of dry, like Containers, Images, and Networks.

Monitor Mode Image

Portions of this information are listed elsewhere in the program (such as inside the Stats + Top container options) but this view provides a central location for information on all containers, which allows you to monitor the entire stack. This is useful when managing larger quantities of containers.

Press Q to exit the dashboard. From here, we'll set up dry with Docker Swarm.

Step 6 — Installing dry on the Docker Swarm Cluster Manager (Optional)

From your local computer, user docker-machine to SSH into your designated cluster manager node. In the prerequisite tutorial for Docker Swarm, this was set as node-1.

  • docker-machine ssh node-1

To demonstrate another method of installing dry, curl the official installation script and run it. If you prefer to avoid the curl ... | sh pattern, you can install dry as in Step 1.

  • curl -sSf https://moncho.github.io/dry/dryup.sh | sh

The installation script will automatically move the dry binary to /usr/local/bin:

Output
dryup: Moving dry binary to its destination dryup: dry binary was copied to /usr/local/bin, now you should 'sudo chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/dry'

Update the permissions on the binary, like we did in Step 1.

  • sudo chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/dry

Now try running dry.

  • dry

At the top right hand side of the initial Containers section, the Swarm and Node role status lines that were blank in earlier steps are now populated:

Output
Swarm: active Node role: manager Nodes: 3

You'll also see two containers with long images names listed. The other three containers are spread out among the other Swarm worker nodes, and were defined by the webserver example service from the prerequisite tutorial.

The cluster manager's dry installation is ready, so let's see how dry works with Docker Swarm next.

Step 7 — Interacting with Docker Swarm Nodes (Optional)

From the Containers section, press 4 to navigate to the Nodes section.

Dashboard Nodes Section

This section shows some useful metrics for each node, like its role (manager or work), status, and availability. The line at the top of the screen shows resource consumption information.

From here, use the arrow keys to select node-2, then press ENTER. This will pull up the individual node's tasks:

node-2 Tasks Dashboard

In terms of the webserver service, node-2 holds the first and second of the five networked containers. The tasks in this view shows that the CURRENT STATE of the two containers is active, and lists how long they've been running. The numbering of your own container names here may vary. It depends upon which worker node the containers are allocated to, which is determined by the the Docker service command.

Return to the Nodes section by pressing ESC so we can explore some of dry's keybindings here.

A common task when using Docker Swarm is changing the state, or availability, of certain nodes. Highlight node-1 again and press CTRL+A to see the Set Availability prompt.

Output
Changing node availability, please type one of ('active'|'pause'|'drain')

Type drain and confirm it with ENTER.

The drain option prevents a node from receiving new directions from the Swarm cluster manager, and is typically used for planned miantenance. Using drain also means the node manager launches a replica on a separate node set to active availability which compensates for the temporary downtime of the drained node.

When you submit the drain command, the status message in the top left will confirm the action:

You'll see in the status message that appears at the top left, a confirmation of this action. This change is reflected in the AVAILABILITY column too:

Output
Node iujfrchorop9mzsjswrclzcmb availability is now drain

You'll also notice the change reflected in the AVAILABILITY column.

To bring node-2 back up, highlight it again and press CTRL+A to bring the Set Availability prompt back. This time, type active and press ENTER.

You'll see a confirmation message for this action, too:

Output
Docker daemon: update wrclzcmb availability is now active

The option we didn't use, pause, temporarily halts all processes within each container found in the node until they are set as active again.

In the last step, we'll interact with Docker Swarm services in dry.

Step 8 — Interacting with Docker Swarm Services (Optional)

Press 5 to view the Services section of dry.

Dashboard Services Section

The prerequisite tutorial set up only one service, webserver, which is set to replicate instances (i.e. create new containers) when necessary up to a maximum of five. This view confirms that 5/5 replicas are active, and shows the port mapping that the service is using as well as its distributed tasks.

We can use dry to see much more detail about the service. Press ENTER when the webserver service is highlighted.

Dashboard webserver Task Summary

This detailed service view contains a lot of information about the state of the service and its Swarm nodes.

Interestingly, you might notice that there are seven tasks listed here, despite the service being set to five. This is because Docker Swarm created two extra replica tasks earlier from the test in Step 7, when we switched node-2 into drain mode.

We can use dry to increase the maximum number of replicas, too. Press ESC to return to the Services section, then enter CTRL+S while highlighting the webserver service. This will pull up the scaling prompt:

Output
Scale service. Number of replicas?

In context, scaling this service would be useful to meet any demands for additional resources due to growing web traffic. Let's increase the number of replicas to 8 by entering 8 in the prompt and pressing ENTER.

Check for this confirmation message to confirm the action:

Output
Docker daemon: update v6gbc1ms0pi scaled to 8 replicas

You can see the Services view lists 8/8 replicas for the service now.

If you want to remove a service entirely, highlight it and press CTRL+R to pull up the service removal prompt:

Output
About to remove the selected service. Do you want to proceed? y/N

You can use this to remove the webserver service if you no longer need or want to run it.

Finally, press Q to exit the dashboard and quit the program.

Conclusion

By following this tutorial, you've set up dry on a Docker host and a Docker Swarm cluster manager. This tutorial also covered the essentials of dry's functionality, like interacting with Docker containers, images, and networks as well as Docker Swarm nodes and services.

There is a secondary method of connecting dry to a remote host running Docker, which is using the -H option with the remote host's IP address when running dry. This is useful in situations where you you're unable or uninterested in installing the dry binary.

From here, try applying dry to your own Docker setups to explore how it can streamline your workflow. You can explore dry's extra keybindings in the GitHub README.

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