How To Use Gitolite to Control Access to a Git Server on an Ubuntu 12.04 VPS
This article covers a version of Ubuntu that is no longer supported. If you are currently operate a server running Ubuntu 12.04, we highly recommend upgrading or migrating to a supported version of Ubuntu:
- Upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04.
- Upgrade from Ubuntu 14.04 to Ubuntu 16.04
- Migrate the server data to a supported version
Reason: Ubuntu 12.04 reached end of life (EOL) on April 28, 2017 and no longer receives security patches or updates. This guide is no longer maintained.
This guide might still be useful as a reference, but may not work on other Ubuntu releases. If available, we strongly recommend using a guide written for the version of Ubuntu you are using. You can use the search functionality at the top of the page to find a more recent version.
Git is a great distributed version control system that can be used to keep track of changes and code for any kind of project. Sometimes, it is helpful to configure a git server to house your team's projects.
Gitolite provides an access-control layer for a git server, so that you can configure user-based git access without the accompanying operating system user accounts. This provides your git contributors the privileges they need, without exposing your server to other kinds of interaction.
We will be installing these components on an Ubuntu 12.04 VPS. This tutorial assumes that you have a regular user account on this VPS with sudo privileges. Use this tutorial if you need help setting up a user account on Ubuntu.
Log into your Ubuntu server with your regular user account.
We will be installing git from Ubuntu's default repositories:
sudo apt-get install git-core
We now have git installed. We will want to configure a few things for git to operate properly.
Now that we have git set up correctly, we can install gitolite to manage user access to our repositories.
Gitolite is also available in Ubuntu's default repositories. Install it with this command:
sudo apt-get install gitolite
Gitolite manages its configuration through git! To set this up properly, we'll create a operating system user whose sole function is to interact with gitolite.
The operating system user will be called
git to make it easy for our collaborators to remember. We will not set a password so that it is only accessible through using the
sudo adduser --system --group --shell /bin/bash --disabled-password git
We now have a user called "git" that will handle gitolite configuration. We need to be able to access this user from a normal account. We will do this by configuring an SSH key associated with git administration.
Configure SSH Keys for Git Administration
On your local computer, which you will be using to administer git and gitolite, you need to create an SSH key pair if you have not done so already.
Note: If you already have a key pair created, you should skip this command to avoid overwriting your SSH keys.
ssh-keygen -t rsa
Accept the default location and press
ENTER to configure key-based login without a password.
Copy the public key to the git server by typing:
scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub regular_username@git_server_IP_address:/tmp/git-admin.pub
If you followed the Initial Server Setup article, you will need to allow SSH access to the git user. You can do that by editing
/etc/ssh/sshd_config and adding git to the
AllowUsers directive. Once you're done, restart the SSH server:
sudo service ssh restart
The next steps will take place back on our git server. Log back in with your normal user.
We can log in with our "git" user to initialize gitolite with the public key we just transferred.
sudo su - git
Now, we can set up gitolite with the following command:
ENTER to pull the configuration into your editor. Scan the contents to make sure the default configuration will meet your needs. You can always change it later.
When you are finished, save and exit out of the file.
How To Administer Gitolite
Back on your local computer, you can begin administering gitolite.
If you do not already have git installed on this computer, you need to install it with:
sudo apt-get install git-core
First, we need to clone the gitolite information from our git server to our local machine:
git clone git@git_server_IP_address:gitolite-admin
This will create a new directory called
gitolite-admin within your current directory. Here, we can make changes to our access policies and then push those changes to the git server.
Add New Users to Gitolite
To add users to your projects, you will need their public keys. Gitolite works by associating the username that will be signing in with the public key with the same name. We will pretend we have a user called
john for this demonstration.
On the local machine, we can change into the
gitolite-admin directory and see what is inside:
cd gitolite-admin ls
Inside, there are two directories:
keydir contains user keys.
You would communicate with "john" and acquire the public key that he plans on using. You would then copy that key into this directory like this:
cp /path/to/john's/public/key.pub ~/gitolite-admin/keydir/john.pub
After that, you need to add the new public key to the git repository.
First, we want to configure the user name and email that will be associated with administrative git actions. Type these commands to configure this:
git config --global user.name "your_name_here" git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org"
You probably also want to configure git to use the editor of your choice. Type this command to specify your preferences:
git config --global core.editor your_editor_choice
Now, we can add the new file to git:
git add keydir/john.pub
Commit the changes with a message:
git commit -a -m "New user John added"
Push the changes up to the git server to save the results:
Configure Access with Gitolite
When you added the user in the last section, you may have noticed a warning like this:
remote: remote: ***** WARNING ***** remote: the following users (pubkey files in parens) do not appear in the config file: remote: john(john.pub)
You will receive a message that the new user is not in the config file. This means that the user "john" is known to gitolite, but no access has been created for him.
We can easily add him to our configuration by editing the
We will go one step further though and give him his own repository. We will create a repository called
johnsproject and give him access:
repo gitolite-admin RW+ = git-admin repo testing RW+ = @all
As you can see, the syntax is pretty simple.
We specify a git repository with the
repo keyword followed by its name. Under that, we write the privilege type, an equal sign (=), and the users who should get that access.
Groups can be defined with a line like this:
@group_name = user1 user2 user3
After that, we can refer to a number of users like by referencing the group:
repo some_repo RW+ = @group_name
A special group called
@all references all users or all repositories, based on the context.
The permissions can be one of these values:
- R: Read only access
- RW: Can read or push new changes. Cannot delete refs that exist on the git server already.
- RW+: Can push destructively, or delete refs on the server.
- -: Has no access to the specified content.
We can give "john" full access to a new repository called
johnsproject by adding these lines to the end of the file:
repo johnsproject RW+ = john
Save and close the file.
Now, we can commit this change with a new message:
git commit -a -m "Made John's repo"
Finally, push the changes to the git server:
Now, "john" should be able to clone his project repository with the following command, from the computer where he created the public and private keys:
git clone git@git_server_IP_address:johnsproject
You should now have gitolite configured correctly. You should be able to create git users easily without worrying about configuring accompanying operating system users and permissions every time.
If you are managing multiple projects with diverse teams, it is probably best to set up groups that correspond to projects. It might also be helpful to organize your
keydir keys into subdirectories based on project. Gitolite will use them the same way, but they will be easier to find for administrative purposes.