Security is something we all have to be concerned about on the internet. Having strong, unique passwords for your online accounts can go a long way towards keeping your information secure and isolating security breaches.
With vulnerabilities like HeartBleed surfacing from time-to-time, and trusted companies falling victim to security breaches, your account information can be compromised regardless of whether you have been using strong passwords. If you have been using the same password for different services, the impact can be much more devastating.
Most of us have been told repeatedly about the importance of proper password management. This can be made easier with the help of a password management tool. KeePass is a password management solution that can be used to store and manage a database of passwords on a machine that you control.
Typically, KeePass2 users interact with a local password database through a graphical user interface, but in this guide, we’ll talk about how to create and manipulate these files in a server environment. The kpcli tool is a command line utility for creating and editing KeePass entries and databases.
In the next guide, we will leverage our work by learning how to securely serve the key database file with nginx. We can then connect to this remote database from a local KeePass2 installation to retrieve our password information on any of our internet connected devices.
We will be completing these steps on an Ubuntu 14.04 server.
In order to get started, we’ll have to get some software from the default Ubuntu repositories.
We will be downloading the
kpcli utility and some helper libraries. Since this is our first time using
apt this session, we will refresh our local package index before the installation:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install kpcli libterm-readline-gnu-perl libdata-password-perl
Now that you have the components installed, we can get started learning how to use the command line utility to manage our passwords.
At the prompt, start up an interactive session with
kpcli by typing:
You will be given a prompt for interacting with a clean KeePass2 database file. You can see some of your available options by typing:
cd -- Change directory (path to a group) cl -- Change directory and list entries (cd+ls) close -- Close the currently opened database cls -- Clear screen ("clear" command also works) edit -- Edit an entry: edit <path to entry|entry number> export -- Export entries to a new KeePass DB (export <file.kdb> [<file.key>]) . . .
If you already have a KeePass2 database file, you can use sftp to transfer it to your server and then you can open it in your session like this:
<pre> open <span class=“highlight”>password_database</span>.kdbx </pre> <pre> Please provide the master password: </pre>
You will be asked for your database file’s master password. This will open your database file into the kpcli environment.
If you do not already have a database file, create one now by typing:
<pre> saveas <span class=“highlight”>password_database</span>.kdbx </pre> <pre> Please provide the master password: Retype to verify: </pre>
You will be asked to supply and verify a master password for the KeePass database file. This password is used to secure all of your other passwords, so it is essential that you choose a very good password and that you remember it.
Database files for KeePass2 are traditionally stored with the
.kdbx file extension, so this is a good choice to ensure interoperability between systems.
Now, we have our database file loaded into our kpcli environment. What do we do and how to we get started?
First, if you checked out the help menu, you may have realized that there are some commands that emulate basic *nix commands. However, they do not operate on the filesystem. Instead, they work on the database structure created within our file.
We’ll get oriented by typing:
=== Groups === eMail/ Internet/
As you can see, our database was initialized with two groups, called “eMail” and “Internet”. KeePass stores passwords and the associated data in a structure called an “entry”. It also has a structure called “groups” that are used to organize password entries. Currently, we have two groups, and no entries.
You can make additional groups by using the
To remove groups, you can instead use the
Let’s create our first entry.
We want to store our password for
example.com. This is a website, so it would be wise to store it in our “Internet” group. Move into this group by typing:
Now, we can make our entry by typing:
Adding new entry to "/Internet" Title: example Username: demo_user
You will have to pick a name that will be used to identify the entry in the database. Next, it will ask you for the username that you use to log into the site.
Password: ("g" to generate a password)
Afterwards, you will be asked for a password. If you already have a password that you want to use, you can enter it here. You will be asked to verify what you type. If you do not have a password already, you can simply enter “g” to tell kpcli to generate a strong password for you.
URL: http://www.example.com Notes/Comments (""): (end multi-line input with a single "." on a line)
You will be asked to enter the site’s URL next. You can then enter comments or notes about the account.
For instance, if a site requires that you select security questions to recover a password, this would be a good place to input the answers that you select. End your input by pressing [ENTER], typing a dot “.”, and then hitting [ENTER] again.
You will be informed that the database was changed. Type “y” to save your changes.
If you list the contents of the group now, you will see that you have a new entry:
=== Entries === 0. example www.example.com
You can reference this entry by the leading index number or by the title you gave it.
Now that you have an entry, we can learn a bit about how to manipulate existing entries.
To edit an existing entry, you can use the
edit command, and call it by index number or title:
You will be taken through the fields of the entry one-by-one, which will be pre-populated with your previous selections. Just hit “ENTER” to accept the values of any fields that you would like to keep.
To show the contents of an entry, you can use the
Path: /Internet Title: example Uname: demo_user Pass: URL: http://www.example.com Notes:
When the output is shown on your screen, the password will be obscured by a red (if your terminal supports colored output) block. Basically, this is red text on a red background. This is used to keep people from seeing your password. You can still copy and paste the text to enter it into fields.
If you want to show the password on the screen, you can add the
show -f 0
Path: /Internet Title: example Uname: demo_user Pass: _OZ1oMyZiC4ceydUDVvC URL: http://www.example.com Notes:
You can also add the
-a flag to print additional information like the creation and last modification times.
To remove an entry, you can use the
You will not be prompted about whether you really want to delete the entry, so be careful. You will be prompted whether you want to save the changes though, so if you accidentally remove an entry, try not to save. You can then use the
open command to re-open the file.
To move an entry to a different group, you can use the
mv 0 /eMail/
To find an entry, you can use the
Searching for "example" ... - 1 matches found and placed into /_found/ Would you like to show this entry? [y/N]
As the output suggests, the results will be available in a new group called
/_found. If you don’t want to keep this group, you can always delete it. The entries that were found will not be affected.
There are some additional commands that you should learn if you are going to be using kpcli.
To rename a group, you can use the
Enter the groups new Title: internet
If you want to check the strength of the passwords you have selected, you can use the
This will recursively check all of your passwords. You could just point it at a single entry though.
To see some statistics about your database file, you can use the
KeePass file version: 2 Encryption type: rijndael Encryption rounds: 6000 Number of groups: 2 Number of entries: 1 Entries with passwords of length: - 20+: 1
Finally, to end your session, you can explicitly save your changes:
You can close the database file you are currently working on and continue to use kpcli by typing:
Or you can exit out of kpcli entirely by typing:
In this guide, you learned how to use the
kpcli tool to interact with and create KeePass2 password database files. You should be able to manipulate entries and files with relative ease from your server environment.
In the next guide, we will show you how to serve your database files with nginx so that you can interact with your remote database with your local KeePass2 installation.
<div class=“author”>By Justin Ellingwood</div>
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Effective password management is essential in keeping your accounts and online identities secure. While there are many password management solutions that work on either a local computer or using a web service, these both have their drawbacks. In this series, we will demonstrate how to use some tools to make KeePass2, an open source local password management solution, available on a web-accessible server for remote use.
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I know this will be three years old in a few months, but it’s relevant in the current versions.
By default kpcli saves the database with file version 1. The only thing that makes your database file version 2 is the addition of the “.kdbx” extension.
The normal KeePass client for Windows will not open file version 1 (but you could import it to a new database with file version 2).
With kpcli you could save a file version 1 database as version 2 by opening the database and use “saveas my_db.kdbx”.
My versions: kpcli: 3.0 KeePass: 2.34