MySQL is an open-source database management system, commonly installed as part of the popular LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP/Python/Perl) stack. It implements the relational model and uses Structured Query Language (better known as SQL) to manage its data.
This quickstart tutorial will explain how to install MySQL version 8.0 on an Ubuntu 20.04 server.
To follow this tutorial, you will need:
To install MySQL, first update your server’s package index if you’ve not done so recently:
- sudo apt update
Then install the
- sudo apt install mysql-server
Ensure that MySQL is running:
- sudo systemctl start mysql.service
Run MySQL’s included security script with
- sudo mysql_secure_installation
This will take you through a series of prompts where you can make some changes to your MySQL installation’s security options. The first prompt will ask whether you’d like to set up the Validate Password Plugin, which can be used to test the strength of your MySQL password.
If you elect to set up the Validate Password Plugin, the script will ask you to choose a password validation level, with the weakest being
0 and the strongest being
OutputSecuring the MySQL server deployment. Connecting to MySQL using a blank password. VALIDATE PASSWORD COMPONENT can be used to test passwords and improve security. It checks the strength of password and allows the users to set only those passwords which are secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD component? Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: Y There are three levels of password validation policy: LOW Length >= 8 MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary file Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 2
The next prompt will be to enter and confirm a password for the MySQL root user:
OutputPlease set the password for root here. New password: Re-enter new password:
The script will then ask if you want to continue with the password you just entered or if you want to enter a new one. If you’re satisfied with your password, enter
Y to continue the script:
OutputEstimated strength of the password: 100 Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y
From there, you can press
Y and then
ENTER to accept the defaults for all the subsequent questions.
Upon installation, MySQL creates a privileged root user account which you can use to manage your database, though it’s best to avoid using this account outside of administrative functions. This step outlines how to use the root MySQL user to create a new user account and grant it privileges.
Connect to the database as the root MySQL user:
- sudo mysql
Note: If you installed MySQL with another tutorial and enabled password authentication for root, you will need to use the following command to access the MySQL shell:
- mysql -u root -p
Once you have access to the MySQL prompt, you can create a new user with a
CREATE USER statement. These follow this general syntax:
- CREATE USER 'username'@'host' IDENTIFIED WITH authentication_plugin BY 'password';
You have several options when it comes to choosing your user’s authentication plugin. The
auth_socket plugin mentioned previously can be convenient, as it provides strong security without requiring valid users to enter a password to access the database. But it also prevents remote connections, which can complicate things when external programs need to interact with MySQL.
As an alternative, you can leave out the
WITH authentication plugin portion of the syntax entirely to have the user authenticate with MySQL’s default plugin,
caching_sha2_password. The following ocmmand creates a user that authenticates with
caching_sha2_password. Be sure to change
sammy to your preferred username and
password to a strong password of your choosing:
- CREATE USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Note: There is a known issue with some versions of PHP that causes problems with
caching_sha2_password. If you plan to use this database with a PHP application — phpMyAdmin, for example — you may want to create a user that will authenticate with the older, though still secure,
mysql_native_password plugin instead:
- CREATE USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
If you aren’t sure, you can always create a user that authenticates with
caching_sha2_plugin and then
ALTER it later on with this command:
- ALTER USER 'sammy'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
After creating your new user, you can grant them the appropriate privileges.
To illustrate, the following command grants a user global privileges to
DROP databases, tables, and users, as well as the power to
DELETE data from any table on the server. It also grants the user the ability to query data with
SELECT. Run this
GRANT statement, replacing
sammy with your own MySQL user’s name, to grant these privileges to your user:
- GRANT CREATE, ALTER, DROP, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT on *.* TO 'sammy'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
Warning: Some users may want to grant their MySQL user the
ALL PRIVILEGES privilege, which will provide them with broad superuser privileges akin to the root user’s privileges, like so:
- GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'sammy'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
Such broad privileges should not be granted lightly, as anyone with access to this MySQL user will have complete control over every database on the server.
Following this, it’s good practice to run the
FLUSH PRIVILEGES command:
- FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Then you can exit the MySQL client:
In the future, to log in as your new MySQL user, you’d use a command like the following:
- mysql -u sammy -p
-p flag will cause the MySQL client to prompt you for your MySQL user’s password in order to authenticate.
You now have a basic MySQL setup installed on your server. Here are a few examples of next steps you can take:
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