By Vadym Kalsin
The author selected Code.org to receive a donation as part of the Write for DOnations program.
Let’s Encrypt is a certificate authority (CA) that provides free certificates for Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption. It provides a software client called Certbot which simplifies the process of certificate creation, validation, signing, installation, and renewal.
Let’s Encrypt now supports wildcard certificates which allow you to secure all subdomains of a domain with a single certificate. This will be useful if you want to host multiple services, such as web interfaces, APIs, and other sites using a single server.
To obtain a wildcard certificate from Let’s Encrypt you have to use one of Certbot’s DNS plugins, which include:
The plugin you choose depends on which service hosts your DNS records. In this tutorial you will obtain a wildcard certificate for your domain using CloudFlare validation with Certbot on CentOS 7. You’ll then configure the certificate to renew it when it expires.
To complete this tutorial, you’ll need the following:
certbot package is not available through CentOS’s package manager by default. You will need to enable the EPEL repository to install Certbot and its plugins.
To add the CentOS 7 EPEL repository, run the following command:
- sudo yum install -y epel-release
Once the installation completes, you can install
- sudo yum install -y certbot
And then install the CloudFlare plugin for Certbot:
- sudo yum install -y python2-cloudflare python2-certbot-dns-cloudflare
If you are using another DNS service, you can find the corresponding plugin using the
yum search command:
- yum search python2-certbot-dns
You’ve prepared your server to obtain certificates. Now you need to get the API key from CloudFlare.
In order for Certbot to automatically renew wildcard certificates, you need to provide it with your CloudFlare login and API key.
Log in to your Cloudflare account and navigate to the Profile page.
Click the View button in the Global API Key line.
For security reasons, you will be asked to re-enter your Cloudflare account password. Enter it and validate the CAPTCHA. Then click the View button again. You’ll see your API key:
Copy this key. You will use it in the next step.
Now return to your server to continue the process of obtaining the certificate.
You have all of the necessary information to tell Certbot how to use Cloudflare, but let’s write it to a configuration file so that Сertbot can use it automatically.
First run the
certbot command without any parameters to create the initial configuration file:
- sudo certbot
Next create a configuration file in the
/etc/letsencrypt directory which will contain your CloudFlare email and API key:
- sudo vi /etc/letsencrypt/cloudflareapi.cfg
Add the following into it, replacing the placeholders with your Cloudflare login and API key:
dns_cloudflare_email = your_cloudflare_login dns_cloudflare_api_key = your_cloudflare_api_key
Save the file and exit the editor. With Cloudflare’s API key, you can do the same things from the command line that you can do from the Cloudflare UI, so in order to protect your account, make the configuration file readable only by its owner so nobody else can obtain your key:
- sudo chmod 600 /etc/letsencrypt/cloudflareapi.cfg
With the configuration files in place, let’s obtain a certificate.
To obtain a certificate, we’ll use the
certbot command and specify the plugin we want, the credentials file we want to use, and the server we should use to handle the request. By default, Certbot uses Let’s Encrypt’s production servers, which use ACME API version 1, but Certbot uses another protocol for obtaining wildcard certificates, so you need to provide an ACME v2 endpoint.
Run the following command to obtain the wildcard certificate for your domain:
- sudo certbot certonly --cert-name your_domain --dns-cloudflare --dns-cloudflare-credentials /etc/letsencrypt/cloudflareapi.cfg --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory -d "*.your_domain" -d your_domain
You will be asked to specify the email address that should receive urgent renewal and security notices:
Output... Plugins selected: Authenticator dns-cloudflare, Installer None Enter email address (used for urgent renewal and security notices) (Enter 'c' to cancel): your email
Then you’ll be asked to agree to the Terms of Service:
Output------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Please read the Terms of Service at https://letsencrypt.org/documents/LE-SA-v1.2-November-15-2017.pdf. You must agree in order to register with the ACME server at https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (A)gree/(C)ancel: A
Then you’ll be asked to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier Foundation:
Output------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Would you be willing to share your email address with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a founding partner of the Let's Encrypt project and the non-profit organization that develops Certbot? We'd like to send you email about EFF and our work to encrypt the web, protect its users and defend digital rights. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (Y)es/(N)o: N
Then Certbot will obtain your certificates. You will see the following message:
OutputIMPORTANT NOTES: - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/fullchain.pem Your key file has been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/privkey.pem Your cert will expire on 2018-07-31. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot renew" - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so making regular backups of this folder is ideal. - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: https://letsencrypt.org/donate Donating to EFF: https://eff.org/donate-le
Now you have your wildcard certificate. Let’s take a look at what Certbot has downloaded for you. Use the
ls command to see the contents of the directory that holds your keys and certificates:
- sudo ls /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain
Outputcert.pem chain.pem fullchain.pem privkey.pem README
README file contains information about these files:
$ cat /etc/letsencrypt/live/your_domain/README
You’ll see output like this:
This directory contains your keys and certificates. `privkey.pem` : the private key for your certificate. `fullchain.pem`: the certificate file used in most server software. `chain.pem` : used for OCSP stapling in Nginx >=1.3.7. `cert.pem` : will break many server configurations, and should not be used without reading further documentation (see link below). We recommend not moving these files. For more information, see the Certbot User Guide at https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#where-are-my-certificates.
From here, you can configure your servers with the wildcard certificate. You’ll usually only need two of these files:
For example, you can configure several web-based services:
To do this, you will need a web server, such as Apache or Nginx. The installation and configuration of these servers is beyond the scope of this tutorial, but the following guides will walk you through all the necessary steps to configure the servers and apply your certificates.
For Nginx, take a look at these tutorials:
For Apache, consult these tutorials:
Now let’s look at renewing the certificates automatically.
Let’s Encrypt issues short-lived certificates which are valid for 90 days. We’ll need to set up a cron task to check for expiring certificates and renew them automatically.
Let’s create a cron task which will run the renewal check daily.
Use the following command to open the
crontab file for editing:
- sudo crontab -e
Add the following line to the file to attempt to renew the certificates daily:
30 2 * * * certbot renew --noninteractive
30 2 * * *means “run the following command at 2:30 am, every day”.
certbot renewcommand will check all certificates installed on the system and update any that are set to expire in less than thirty days.
--noninteractivetells Certbot not to wait for user input.
You will need to reload your web server after updating your certificates. The
renew command includes hooks for running commands or scripts before or after a certificate is renewed. You can also configure these hooks in the renewal configuration file for your domain.
For example, to reload your Nginx server, open the renewal configuration file:
- sudo vi /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/your_domain.conf
Then add the following line under the
renew_hook = systemctl reload nginx
Now Certbot will automatically restart your web server after installing the updated certificate.
In this tutorial you’ve installed the Certbot client, obtained your wildcard certificate using DNS validation and enabled automatic renewals. This will allow you to use a single certificate with multiple subdomains of your domain and secure your web services.
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I just want to say thank you! I’ve been looking for a tutorial like this for the last couple of days, and even though I’m using Ubuntu, I just needed to change some commands. Worked great! Thanks!
What are the instructions for DigitalOcean? I can’t find any documentation, but was able to find the plugin on ubuntu 16.04
I guess it is supported only on Cloudflare Business and Enterprise plans, what means would cost at least 200$ per domain. And know that Cloudflare has no plans to support wildcard certs for free as does Let’s Encrypt, limiting only first level-domains, what I mean can’t add SSL for www.sub.domain.com
I have tried to convince Cloudflare about this issue for years, but still … this doesn’t fit in their business plan.