Understanding Variables, Scope, and Hoisting in JavaScript

Updated on August 24, 2021
Understanding Variables, Scope, and Hoisting in JavaScript


Variables are a fundamental part of many programming languages, and are among the first and most important concepts for novice coders to learn. There are a number of different properties of variables in JavaScript, as well as several rules which must be followed when naming them. In JavaScript, there are three keywords used to declare a variable — var, let, and const — and each one affects how the code will interpret the variable differently.

This tutorial will cover what variables are, how to declare and name them, and also take a closer look at the difference between var, let, and const. We will also review the effects of hoisting and the significance of global and local scope to a variable’s behavior.

Understanding Variables

A variable is a named container used for storing values. A piece of information that we might reference multiple times can be stored in a variable for later use or modification. In JavaScript, the value contained inside a variable can be any JavaScript data type, including a number, string, or object.

Prior to the ECMAScript 2015 (ES6) language specification that today’s JavaScript is based on, there was only one way to declare a variable — using the var keyword. As a result, most older code and learning resources will only use var for variables. We’ll go over the differences between var, let, and const keywords in its own section below.

We can use var to demonstrate the concept of a variable itself. In the example below, we will declare a variable, and assign a value to it.

// Assign the string value Sammy to the username identifier
var username = "sammy_shark";

This statement consists of a few parts:

  • The declaration of a variable using the var keyword
  • The variable name (or identifier), username
  • The assignment operation, represented by the = syntax
  • The value being assigned, "sammy_shark"

Now we can use username in code. JavaScript will remember that username represents the string value sammy_shark.

// Check if variable is equal to value
if (username === "sammy_shark") {

As mentioned previously, variables can be used to represent any JavaScript data type. In this example, we’ll declare variables with string, number, object, Boolean, and null values.

// Assignment of various variables
var name = "Sammy";
var spartans = 300;
var kingdoms = [ "mammals", "birds", "fish" ];
var poem = { roses: "red", violets: "blue" }; 
var success = true;
var nothing = null;

Using console.log, we can see the value contained in a specific variable.

// Send spartans variable to the console

Variables store data in memory which can later be accessed and modified. Variables can also be reassigned and given a new value. The simplified example below demonstrates how a password might be stored to a variable and then updated.

// Assign value to password variable
var password = "hunter2";

// Reassign variable value with a new value
password = "hunter3";


In an actual program, a password would most likely be securely stored in a database. This example, however, illustrates a situation in which we might need to update the value of a variable. The value of password was hunter2, but we reassigned it to hunter3 which is the value JavaScript recognizes from that point forward.

Naming Variables

Variable names are known as identifiers in JavaScript. We discussed several of the rules of naming identifiers in Understanding Syntax and Code Structure in JavaScript, summarized here:

  • Variable names can consist only of letters (a-z), numbers (0-9), dollar sign symbols ($), and underscores (_)
  • Variable names cannot contain any whitespace characters (tabs or spaces)
  • Numbers cannot begin the name of any variable
  • There are several reserved keywords which cannot be used as the name of a variable
  • Variable names are case sensitive

JavaScript also has the convention of using camel case (sometimes stylized as camelCase) in the names of functions and variables declared with var or let. This is the practice of writing the first word lowercase, and then capitalizing the first letter of every subsequent word with no spaces between them. Most variables that are not constants will follow this convention, with some exceptions. The names of variables that are constant, declared with the const keyword, are typically written in all uppercase.

This may seem like a lot of rules to learn, but it will very quickly become second nature to write valid and conventional variable names.

Difference Between var, let, and const

JavaScript has three different keywords to declare a variable, which adds an extra layer of intricacy to the language. The differences between the three are based on scope, hoisting, and reassignment.

Keyword Scope Hoisting Can Be Reassigned Can Be Redeclared
var Function scope Yes Yes Yes
let Block scope No Yes No
const Block scope No No No

You may be wondering which of the three you should use in your own programs. A commonly accepted practice is to use const as much as possible, and let in the case of loops and reassignment. Generally, var can be avoided outside of working on legacy code.

Variable Scope

Scope in JavaScript refers to the current context of code, which determines the accessibility of variables to JavaScript. The two types of scope are local and global:

  • Global variables are those declared outside of a block
  • Local variables are those declared inside of a block

In the example below, we will create a global variable.

// Initialize a global variable
var creature = "wolf";

We learned that variables can be reassigned. Using local scope, we can actually create new variables with the same name as a variable in an outer scope without changing or reassigning the original value.

In the example below, we will create a global species variable. Within the function is a local variable with the same name. By sending them to the console, we can see how the variable’s value is different depending on the scope, and the original value is not changed.

// Initialize a global variable
var species = "human";
function transform() {
  // Initialize a local, function-scoped variable
  var species = "werewolf";

// Log the global and local variable
human werewolf human

In this example, the local variable is function-scoped. Variables declared with the var keyword are always function-scoped, meaning they recognize functions as having a separate scope. This locally-scoped variable is therefore not accessible from the global scope.

The new keywords let and const, however, are block-scoped. This means that a new, local scope is created from any kind of block, including function blocks, if statements, and for and while loops.

To illustrate the difference between function- and block-scoped variables, we will assign a new variable in an if block using let.

var fullMoon = true;

// Initialize a global variable
let species = "human";

if (fullMoon) {
  // Initialize a block-scoped variable
  let species = "werewolf";
  console.log(`It is a full moon. Lupin is currently a ${species}.`);

console.log(`It is not a full moon. Lupin is currently a ${species}.`);
It is a full moon. Lupin is currently a werewolf. It is not a full moon. Lupin is currently a human.

In this example, the species variable has one value globally (human), and another value locally (werewolf). If we were to use var, however, there would be a different result.

// Use var to initialize a variable
var species = "human";

if (fullMoon) {
  // Attempt to create a new variable in a block
  var species = "werewolf";
  console.log(`It is a full moon. Lupin is currently a ${species}.`);

console.log(`It is not a full moon. Lupin is currently a ${species}.`);
It is a full moon. Lupin is currently a werewolf. It is not a full moon. Lupin is currently a werewolf.

In the result of this example, both the global variable and the block-scoped variable end up with the same value, werewolf. This is because instead of creating a new local variable with var, you are reassigning the same variable in the same scope. var does not recognize if to be part of a different, new scope. It is generally recommended that you declare variables that are block-scoped, as they produce code that is less likely to unintentionally override variable values.


In most of the examples so far, we’ve used var to declare a variable, and we have initialized it with a value. After declaring and initializing, we can access or reassign the variable.

If we attempt to use a variable before it has been declared and initialized, it will return undefined.

// Attempt to use a variable before declaring it

// Variable assignment
var x = 100;

However, if we omit the var keyword, we are no longer declaring the variable, only initializing it. It will return a ReferenceError and halt the execution of the script.

// Attempt to use a variable before declaring it

// Variable assignment without var
x = 100;
ReferenceError: x is not defined

The reason for this is due to hoisting, a behavior of JavaScript in which variable and function declarations are moved to the top of their scope. Since only the actual declaration is hoisted, not the initialization, the value in the first example returns undefined.

To demonstrate this concept more clearly, below is the code we wrote and how JavaScript actually interpreted it.

// The code we wrote
var x = 100;

// How JavaScript interpreted it
var x;
x = 100;

JavaScript saved x to memory as a variable before the execution of the script. Since it was still called before it was defined, the result is undefined and not 100. However, it does not cause a ReferenceError and halt the script. Although the var keyword did not actually change location of the var, this is a helpful representation of how hoisting works. This behavior can cause issues, though, because the programmer who wrote this code likely expects the output of x to be 100, when it is instead undefined.

We can also see how hoisting can lead to unpredictable results in the next example:

// Initialize x in the global scope
var x = 100;

function hoist() {
  // A condition that should not affect the outcome of the code
  if (false) {
    var x = 200;


In this example, we declared x to be 100 globally. Depending on an if statement, x could change to 200, but since the condition was false it should not have affected the value of x. Instead, x was hoisted to the top of the hoist() function, and the value became undefined.

This type of unpredictable behavior can potentially cause bugs in a program. Since let and const are block-scoped, they will not hoist in this manner, as seen below.

// Initialize x in the global scope
let x = true;

function hoist() {
  // Initialize x in the function scope
  if (3 === 4) {
    let x = false;


Duplicate declaration of variables, which is possible with var, will throw an error with let and const.

// Attempt to overwrite a variable declared with var
var x = 1;
var x = 2;

// Attempt to overwrite a variable declared with let
let y = 1;
let y = 2;

Uncaught SyntaxError: Identifier 'y' has already been declared

To summarize, variables introduced with var have the potential of being affected by hoisting, a mechanism in JavaScript in which variable declarations are saved to memory. This may result in undefined variables in one’s code. The introduction of let and const resolves this issue by throwing an error when attempting to use a variable before declaring it or attempting to declare a variable more than once.


Many programming languages feature constants, which are values that cannot be modified or changed. In JavaScript, the const identifier is modelled after constants, and the values assigned to a const cannot be reassigned.

It is common convention to write all const identifiers in uppercase. This marks them as readily distinguishable from other variable values.

In the example below, we initialize the variable SPECIES as a constant with the const keyword. Trying to reassign the variable will result in an error.

// Assign value to const
const SPECIES = "human"; 

// Attempt to reassign value
SPECIES = "werewolf";

Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

Since const values cannot be reassigned, they need to be declared and initialized at the same time, or will also throw an error.

// Declare but do not initialize a const
const TODO;

Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

Values that cannot change in programming are known as immutable, while values that can be changed are mutable. Although const values cannot be reassigned, they are mutable as it is possible to modify the properties of objects declared with const.

// Create a CAR object with two properties
const CAR = {
	color: "blue",
	price: 15000

// Modify a property of CAR
CAR.price = 20000;

{ color: 'blue', price: 20000 }

Constants are useful for making it clear to your future self and other programmers working on a project with you that the intended variable should not be reassigned. If you expect that a variable may be modified in the future, you will likely want to use let to declare the variable instead.


In this tutorial, we went over what a variable is, the rules of naming a variable, and how to reassign variable values. We also learned about scope and hoisting, some of the limitations of the original var keyword, as well as how let and const rectify those issues.

To compare how variables are used in other languages, you can read our tutorial on “How To Use Variables in Python 3.”

Thanks for learning with the DigitalOcean Community. Check out our offerings for compute, storage, networking, and managed databases.

Learn more about our products

Tutorial Series: How To Code in JavaScript

JavaScript is a high-level, object-based, dynamic scripting language popular as a tool for making webpages interactive.

About the authors

Default avatar

Manager, Developer Education

Technical Writer @ DigitalOcean

Still looking for an answer?

Ask a questionSearch for more help

Was this helpful?

This textbox defaults to using Markdown to format your answer.

You can type !ref in this text area to quickly search our full set of tutorials, documentation & marketplace offerings and insert the link!

All declarations (function, var, let, const and class) are hoisted in JavaScript, while the var declarations are initialized with undefined , but let and const declarations remain uninitialized.

WOAH, amazing tutorial!

wonderful as always, I have learned a lot of js from your tutorials. it’s very easy to understand complex concepts.

Thanks so much, well done! Running the code is what drives home the learning for me…

This was a great resource Thanks for the manager of this site good lunch

That’s a very thorough article. I was inspired to write this: https://fullstackgeek.blogspot.com/2019/01/variables-scope-in-javascript.html

Wow! Thanks, I got something new to learn. I found good post on this topic which is http://www.visionfortech.com/2018/08/let-vs-var-in-javascript.html So i thought let me share that post with all of you it is well written and well explained by its author.

Nice article, but i think you should add in this article the “temporal dead zone” for const and let declarations. Cheers

Hi Tania, Mark. Thanks for the post. One small typo in the hoisting section; You say “This behavior can cause issues, though, because the programmer who wrote this code likely expects the output of x to be true, when it is instead undefined.” but I think you mean “This behavior can cause issues, though, because the programmer who wrote this code likely expects the output of x to be 100, when it is instead undefined.”

It is not easy at all to use it

Try DigitalOcean for free

Click below to sign up and get $200 of credit to try our products over 60 days!

Sign up

Join the Tech Talk
Success! Thank you! Please check your email for further details.

Please complete your information!

Featured on Community

Get our biweekly newsletter

Sign up for Infrastructure as a Newsletter.

Hollie's Hub for Good

Working on improving health and education, reducing inequality, and spurring economic growth? We'd like to help.

Become a contributor

Get paid to write technical tutorials and select a tech-focused charity to receive a matching donation.

Welcome to the developer cloud

DigitalOcean makes it simple to launch in the cloud and scale up as you grow — whether you're running one virtual machine or ten thousand.

Learn more
DigitalOcean Cloud Control Panel